"A three-footed iron trevet, with a circular top, is employed to support the gum-pot. The feet of the trevet are about 16 inches in height, and spread wider at the bottom than the top, which is made of such a size that the pot will fit easily into it, the flange resting on the top.

"An ash-bed should be prepared near the fire, upon which to place the gum-pot when the varnish is ready for mixing, or that the heat is becoming too great. This is prepared by sifting some dry ashes through a fine sieve, to make a smooth layer about 1 1/2 inch thick, and a little larger than the bottom of the gum-pot.

"Place the trevet in a hollow in a field, yard, garden, or outhouse, where there can be no danger from fire; raise a temporary fire-place round the trevet with loose bricks, after the same manner that plumbers make their furnaces; then make up a good fire with either coke, coal, or wood charcoal, which is far preferable; let the fire burn to a good strong heat, set on the gum-pot with 3 lb. of gum copal; observe that if the fire surround the gum-pot any higher inside than the gum, it is in great danger of taking fire. As soon as the gum begins to fuse and steam, put in the copper stirrer, and keep cutting, dividing, and stirring the gum to assist its fusion; and if it feels lumpy and not fluid, and rises to the middle of the pot, lift it from the fire and set it on he ash-bed, and keep stirring until it goes down (meantime let the fire be kept briskly up); then set on the gum-pot again, and keep stirring until the gum appears fluid like oil, which is to be known by lifting up the stirrer so far as to see the blade. Observe, that if the gum does not appear quite fluid as oil, carry it to the ash-bed whenever it rises to the middle of the pot, and stir it down again (keep up a brisk fire), put on the pot and keep stirring until the gum rises above the blade of the stirrer; call out to the assistant, ' be ready!' He is then, with both hands, to lay hold of the copper pouring-jack, charged with (one gallon) clarified oil, and lean the spout about one inch and a half over the edge of the gum-pot. Let him keep himself firm, steady, and collected, and not flinch, spill, or pour the oil, which would perhaps set all on fire. Observe, when the gum rises within five inches of the pot-mouth, call out, 'Pour!' The assistant is then to pour in the oil very slowly until towards the last, the maker stirring during the pouring.

"If the fire at this time is strong and regular, in about eight or ten minutes the gum and oil will concentrate and become quite clear: this is to be tested by taking a piece of broken window glass in the left hand, and with the right lifting up the stirrer and dropping a portion of the varnish on it; if it appears clear and transparent, the oil and gum are become concentrated or joined together. It is now to be further boiled until it will string between the finger and thumb: this is known by once every minute dropping a portion on the glass and taking a little between the forefinger and thumb: if it is boiled enough it will stick strong, and string out into fine filaments, like bird-lime; but when not boiled enough, it is soft, thick, and greasy without being stringy. The moment it is boiled enough, carry it from the fire to the ash-bed where let it remain from fifteen to twenty minutes, or until it is cold enough to be mixed; have at hand a sufficient quantity of oil of turpentine to fill the pouring pot, (2 gallons) begin and pour out with a small stream, gradually increasing it, and if the varnish rises rapidly in the pot, keep stirring it constantly at the surface with the stirrer to break the bubbles, taking care not to let the stirrer touch the bottom of the pot, for if it should, the oil of turpentine would be in part converted into vapour, and the varnish would run over the pot in a moment: therefore during the mixing, keep constantly stirring as well as pouring in at the same time. Have also a copper ladle at hand, and if it should so far rise as to be unmanageable, let the assistant take the ladle and cool it down with it lifting up one ladleful after another, and letting it fall into the pot. As soon as the varnish is mixed, put the varnish sieve in the copper funnel placed in the carrying tin, and strain the varnish immediately; empty it into open mouthed jars, tins, or cisterns, there let it remain to settle, and the longer it remains the better it will become. Recollect when it is taken out, not to disturb or raise up the bottoms.

"Instead of the ash-bed a circle of loose bricks four courses high may be erected to support the gum-pot. The bricks are to be laid so that when the gum-pot is set within it will rest securely by its flange with the bottom about six inches from the ground. Upon this brick-stand set the pot every time there is occasion to carry it from the fire. Near the stand an iron trevet may be placed, upon which to turn the gum-pot every time after it is washed out, as, by so doing, it will always be kept clean and cool gradually, for by cooling rapidly copper oxidises very quickly. Near the trevet have the swish broom and also a large wide tin jack or other vessel to receive the washings. Have also at hand a copper ladle, and a tin bottle with turpentine, for washing with when wanted.

"The moment the maker has emptied the gum-pot, throw into it half a gallon of turpentine, and with the swish immediately wash it from top to bottom, and instantly empty it into the tin jack. Afterwards with a large piece of woollen rag dipped in pumice powder, wash and polish every part of the inside of the pot, performing the same operation on the ladle and stirrer; rince them with the turpentine washings, and at last rince them altogether with clean turpentine, which also put to the washings; wipe dry with a clean soft rag, the pot, ladle, stirrer and funnel, and lay the sieve so as to be completely covered with turpentine which will always keep it from gumming up.