BY an artificial dream is meant a dream which a person consciously makes up when requested to fabricate what he would consider to be a genuine dream. When these artificial dreams are analyzed, they will be found to contain the same mechanisms as genuine dreams, and behind them will be discovered identical unconscious mental processes. In the analysis of such artificial dreams, the same wishes appear as in real dreams. How does this interesting process take place? How can a conscious imitation of a dream contain the same elusive and wish-fulfilling thoughts as a real dream? It is here that the theory of psychical determinism comes to our aid. It has been shown that there is no more room for chance in the mental world than there is in the physical world. The unconscious and likewise the foreconscious exerts a persistent dynamic influence on our behavior, on the formation of complexes, in every element of our thoughts, in the actions of every-day life and in our dreams. Thus every conscious mental occurrence bears a direct and causal relation to its unconscious or foreconscious source. For this reason, any series of thoughts or ideas given at random, any association or group of associations in the so-called free association procedures, are really not free, but are motivated or caused by unconscious or foreconscious mental processes. In sleep, this type of mental activity causes dreams; during the day it produces reveries and symptomatic actions like slips of the tongue or pen. All reveries, like all dreams, are the fulfillment of wishes. The foreconscious or unconscious can be brought into activity only by a wish or desire, and the realization of that wish in the thought processes is either the night dream or the day revery. Sometimes this process of day-dreams is simple, sometimes it is highly dramatized, like the day-dream of the lover to have a quiet home and a happy family, or of the boy who wishes and at the same time identifies himself with the heroes of history or romance.

Thus the revery, like the dream, results from the same motivating process, a simple or highly disguised wish, and in it can be found the same mechanisms as in dreams. The day-dream, too, may be called the manifest content of our latent or repressed wishes. Thus a revery is the product of an individual fantasy, sometimes voluntary, sometimes involuntary, but in either case not the product of chance or of logic. It differs from the genuine dream only in point of time, one taking place at night, the other during the day. This day-dreaming has been termed "autistic thinking," and its chief characteristic is to represent desires impossible of fulfillment in reality, as actually fulfilled in the imagination during the day. The symbolism of both dreams and autistic thinking has its roots in the unconscious; it is not made or invented, it is only discovered by the analysis. As Bleuler states in his description of autistic thinking:1

"Each of us has also his fairy tale. He does not indeed believe himself to live it; only when he is quite alone and his thoughts are let loose does it come to light. The man is then rich, attractive, healthy, and handsome. He always chooses those advantages in which he is most hopelessly lacking. Directly reality gains its sway, the plaything will be thrust hastily back into the cupboard, where it is hidden, not only from strangers, but from the owner himself; for, once outside the dream, he is not at all aware how far he can really identify himself with its characters. The cupboard into which the toy is put is our own brain, and it never shuts tight. Without our noticing it, the imprisoned fairy very often stretches out a hand. She guides our taste in the choice of a tie, she guides our hand when we make the flourish to our signature. By our hearing, our voice, the choice of our phraseology, she shows the expert the trend of our aspirations."

1 E. Bleuler,"Autistic Thinking," American Journal of Insanity. 1914.

Thus in our reveries we can never wholly emancipate ourselves from our wishes and our ambitions, which are really our innermost desires, and it is these wishes which make up our artificial dreams and give them the same mechanism and significance as the spontaneous dreams. For instance, a young woman who had a sense of timidity and inferiority, when asked to give an artificial dream, replied very significantly: "1 can't make up a dream that is not what I'd like - I'd like to be a great orator and talk and hold an audience." Thus the day-dream expressed the fulfillment of her wishes, and these wishes were a kind of compensation for her own defects of character and her feeling of inferiority.

When a subject, therefore, is asked to fabricate a dream, that is, to produce an artificial dream by stating at random any thoughts which may come into his head, such a product is not the haphazard fantasy of his waking thoughts (because such a thing is impossible) but is motivated or produced by his conscious or unconscious wishes. For instance, on one occasion I requested a severe stammerer to fabricate a dream, and he immediately replied: "I dream that I am addressing a large audience without stammering." On another occasion, I asked a subject whose nervous disturbance had produced an outward impression of stupidity, to fabricate a dream, and the immediate answer was: "I dream that I am bright and alert." In both these instances the replies showed fulfillments of wishes, the same as in genuine dreams.

A highly intelligent unmarried woman, who was undergoing the psycho-analytic treatment, at my request and in my presence wrote the following artificial dreams. These are given verbatim with the outlines of the analysis of each dream, to explain the underlying wishes.

Artificial Dream I. "Washing a little newly born baby in a wash bowl. There seems to be a woman in bed, not well enough to be up. Face is not distinct, but the hair is dark. The woman seems to be myself. The baby is taken out of the bowl and given to her to nurse. Then a tall, happy-looking, fair-haired man came to the door. He appears younger than she, and she is happy to see him."

Analysis. Her wish for a happy marriage and motherhood is fulfilled in this artificial dream as a pure imaginative product, the same as the wish for motherhood appeared in a genuine symbolized dream a few nights previously.

Artificial Dream II. "An enormous glass chandelier in a concert hall full of people. It is a vocal recital. I am on the stage singing."

Analysis. She has always longed to sing in public, but her nervous disturbance (morbid fear) made such a thing impossible. This artificial dream therefore represents a fulfillment of her desire to sing in public freely and spontaneously.

Artificial Dream III. "Interior of a Dutch house, and a Dutch housewife with a funny head-dress, making bread on a big board. There is a window at her right, and kitchen utensils are hung up on the wall. Bread then seems to be in pans. She is putting it in the oven, and as she turns around, a troop of from four to six children come in from school, and she greets them and runs around to get dinner for them."

Analysis. The instigator of these dreams was a copy of The Necklace by Vermeer of Delft which hung in my office. The dreamer had been in Holland and had recently been reading a book of travel about Holland. In this travel book, the father and mother were represented as travelling with their two children. The father knew Dutch history and so kept the children informed; the mother in the book seemed to know all about Dutch housekeeping. In this artificial dream she identifies herself with the mother and wishes that she were in the mother's place. Therefore, like the first artificial dream, this dream represents, in a somewhat different arrangement of material, a wish for motherhood and a happy home.

Artificial Dream IV. "She seemed to be a young woman again, at college and walking on the campus with other girls."

Analysis. A wish to be younger and to live her life over again.

In all these artificial dreams, a desire or wish is actually fulfilled or realized; in fact, an idea which merely existed in the region of possibility is here replaced by a vision or mental image of its accomplishment. Thus we have the same mechanism as in genuine dreams.

Artificial dreams, like genuine dreams, have frequently interwoven within them childhood fantasies, such as the imagined family conflicts or romances of the child. This is particularly seen in the day-dreams of children and adults, both of which bear a strong relationship to hysterical fantasies. These day-dreams or reveries serve for the fulfillment of wishes and for the righting of the conflicts of life, both of which cannot be realized in actuality. They realize, in the imagination, either personal ambitions or erotic feelings.

Experimental dreams, produced artificially by hypnotic command, also substantiate many of the theories of Freud. For instance, in some experiments when the command was given to dream something grossly sexual, the resulting dream expressed the sexual ideas, not literally, but in a symbolized form, thus proving experimentally that the censor was at work, and the dream consisted of the formation of a manifest from a latent content. These and other experiments have demonstrated that the unconscious complexes determine for the main part the character of our dreams, and that this unconscious is capable of a symbolization of our latent thoughts.