Dream VII She was visiting B. with her father and was riding through the subway.

Dream VlII. She was in school, happy, studying her lessons, and with all her schoolmates.

In analyzing this series of dreams, their simple character, undistorted by symboli-zation, stands out prominently. Then, too, nearly every dream could be found to be instigated either by some happening during the day or by some mental conflict of the nature of an unfulfilled wish, the wish, however, becoming completely fulfilled in the dream. It was found also that all the dreams represented unfulfilled conscious and unconscious wishes which were repressed during the day.

The instigators of some of these dreams, so far as could be demonstrated, have al-ready been given in parenthesis at the end of each dream. Although the dream instigators were harmless enough, yet the content of each dream represented the fulfilling of important repressed childhood wishes, relating principally to family conflicts and jealousies, particularly toward her younger brothers and sisters. This is not at all surprising when we remember that the feelings of most children for their younger brothers and sisters is far from being altogether one of affection. In fact, there is a feeling of rivalry and jealousy toward the younger ones of the family, particularly if these younger members in any way hinder or interfere with the child's play activities.

Thus the child is an egoist; it has little or no altruistic or family feelings. It sees in its elders an oppressor and interprets the younger members of the family as rivals for the parental love which it feels should be showered on it alone. This rivalry is not only seen in the love of the son for the mother and of the daughter for the father, but likewise in the relationship between brothers and sisters, particularly if they happen to be younger. The child not only wishes its younger rivals dead (or out of sight, which is synonymous for the child), but if this rival in any way interferes with its activities, the wish for its death or disappearance is actually fulfilled in the dream. Sometimes the wish in very young children is clearly indicated in their speech; in other older children the wish is suppressed. For instance, a little boy of my acquaintance, when asked if he loved a new arrival in the shape of a little brother, replied that he would "throw him down the elevator well", and later showed his disgust with him by saying: "He can't talk or anything." Freud's case of Hans, too, showed his coolness toward a new arrival by stating that "He had no teeth." Facts such as these, in the form of conscious jealousy associated with an unconscious wish to put the younger member of the family aside, could be elicited in our case.

For some period the little patient had shown a jealousy of her younger brothers and sisters, and at times, particularly at Christmas, she accused her father and mother of "speaking more about their presents" (referring to the younger children) "than of mine." She is apt to feel badly also, unless her mother takes her to entertainments to the exclusion of the other children. Toward her baby brother, who was eighteen months old at the time the hysterical blindness began, she has shown a certain amount of ambivalence,1 in that during her waking moments she reiterated her love for him, whereas she systematically wished him out of the way in her dreams.

The child's first difficulty with the eyesight occurred while she was at school. Her mother had been away for several weeks, and during her mother's absence the maid suddenly left the house. Thus there devolved upon her the partial care of the house and also of the younger children. She resented this added labor, as it interfered with her play activities, and this feeling was accentuated by the added jealousy towards her younger brothers, which she had displayed in times past.

1A term applied in psycho-analysis which gives the same idea two contrary feelings, such as hating and loving or repulsion and attraction, or which invests the same thought simultaneously with both a positive and negative character.

Her nine-year-old brother S. plays with another boy about his own age, and this also made her jealous, as she wished to play with the boy alone. The play activities of children frequently have an associated erotic component, such as in swinging and in muscular activity. Out of this mental attitude of jealousy and of what she considered an interference with her play activities, she developed the idea (a wish) that if she were ill, the added family labor would be taken away from her, and thus she would be free to play again. Thus the purposeful mental action arose, something would be gained by a conversion of this wish into blindness, so as not to see her surroundings and the children. However, the blindness was not a selected one, directed to the younger children alone, but also comprised her school and play activities in such a manner that she could not see to read the fairy stories of which she was fond, the blackboard at school, or her normal outdoor sports. That is, her converted wish defeated her own ends, the blindness became general, and she was, so to speak, "hoisted with her own petard."

After the mechanism of her blindness as a converted wish became understood through the dream analysis, it was this mechanism which furnished the hints for the psychotherapy and, therefore, cure of the condition. The child was taken out of school and not allowed to play or read, and meanwhile a promise was held out to her that she would again be allowed to play, read, and return to school as soon as her eyesight was better. The dreams furnished strong evidence of this persistent wish to resume her school and play activities, and it was on the basis of the dreams that the psychotherapy was carried out. By the use of this simple and logical method, when the child, who was quite intelligent, saw that nothing further was to be gained by her blindness, since it defeated its own ends by being total and not selective, the vision gradually became normal. The symptom of blindness by this simple psychotherapeutic method not only disappeared, but the converted wish that was lying at the bottom of her hysteria likewise vanished.