This section is from the book "Scouting For Rural Boys. A Manual For Leaders", by Boy scouts of America. See also: Outdoor Adventure Manual: Essential Scouting Skills for the Great Outdoors.
1. Personal development through self-expression and initiative.
2. Vocational exploration, giving intelligent guidance to explore, find and train in a craft line or trade on a "try-out" basis.
3. Finding of hobbies, which tend to stabilize personality, and also may have avocational and vocational meaning for participants.
4. Free-time control, making Scouting at once a happy game and safe in free-time activities.
5. The general utility values of crafts are important in meeting situations at home, office, farm, factory and store, and everywhere in life's affairs.
These are quite in addition to the obvious educative results and the strength found in a general knowledge of the many helpful facts acquired through the crafts.
ANIMAL CUTOUTS FOR HALTER PRACTICE CONSERVATION CRAFT.
"Bud" is cut from "bud-stick" by drawing the knife from below bud, C(1). "Bud" is cut from another tree and represents the variety desired. T-shaped cut is made to receive the bud, C(2). Flaps of bark are opened. Bud is shoved from the top down between flaps, C(3). Top of bud should come below top of T-shaped cut. Flaps are pressed down and bound by raffia or waxed string, C(4). Bud started, C(5).
Bud-stick after removal of bud, D(1). Bud being wrapped with half-inch strip of waxed cloth, D(2). Bud growing after cloth is removed, D(5). Side view of bud, D(3). Front view before placing, D(4).
For grafting seedlings and rootstock, commonly with Persian Walnut and Pecans. Splice is tied with raffia, wax or commercial bandages. E(l), (2), (3).
Trunk with bark injured entirely around by animals or accident, F(l). Scion, sharpened for use in "bridge-grafting," F(2). Wound cleaned, ragged and diseased bark removed. Slit in healthy bark above and below wound, scions sprung into the slits and held in place by nails, F(3). Wax is applied where scions join bark.
Scions for cleft-grafting, G(1). Stock to be grafted, cut off squarely, split, G(2). Section showing position of scion in split, G(3). Scions ready for wax, G(4). Exposed surfaces coated by wax, G(5).
The design, with its forms, reenforcement and the mixture are important for the Scout to watch.
One-inch boards may be used for small projects with one to one-half inch for heavier ones. Boards should be smooth, as roughness will show in the finished article. Forms should be so put together that they may be readily taken apart, once the cement has "set." If several duplicates are to be made, hooks or bolts will be found useful. Coating the inside of forms with soft soap, or oil, aids removal of form boards.
A rich mixture (50-50 sand and cement) may be used for the projects shown (3 of sand to 1 of cement is sometimes used). Mix dry and add water later, mixing with a hoe and shovel until thoroughly wet and jelly-like throughout mass, but not soft enough to "run."
Color may be added to the mixture, working it in thoroughly with hoe and shovel.
When mixed and wet, the cement is poured into the waiting forms and allowed to stand until thoroughly set some 48 hours, and longer if weather is damp and cold.
Use large trowel or smooth planed board to smooth the top surfaces while cement is drying, or in case of flag-stone blocks, steps and walks, the surfaces should be "roughed" or "creased" to make firmer footing.
BIRD FEEDERS AND SHELTERS
The Scout leader will have little difficulty in getting his Scouts to recognize that to have the birds as friends he needs only to have some feeding stations, shelters, watering places and bird homes or safe nesting spots.