Grantors who are fiduciaries, such as executors and trustees, have no interest in the property or the proceeds of its sale except as representatives of others. They do not wish to assume any future obligations. Hence they customarily are willing to covenant only that they "have not done or suffered anything whereby the said premises have been incumbered in any way whatever." This is known as the covenant against grantor's acts and as it states, is merely a declaration that the grantor has himself done nothing to harm the title. This covenant, if broken by the grantor, is considered to be broken at the time of delivery of the deed, not at any later time, or as is said, it does not run with the land. No subsequent purchaser of the land benefits by it, except in so far as the time to sue for its breach is usually 20 years and the subsequent purchaser may become entitled to sue on the covenant by reason of assignment in later deeds. His only right is however by reason of the cause of action for breach being assigned to him; he has no rights under the covenant itself. Full covenant and warranty deed. - The usual form of contract of sale where the seller is acting for himself provides that the seller shall give a deed containing the full covenants and I warranties. These give the purchaser every possible future guarantee. In New York State they are five in number. They are inserted in the deed between the habendum and testimony clauses and in order are known as the covenants of

1. Seizin.

2. Quiet enjoyment.

3. Encumbrance.

4. Further assurance.

5. Warranty.

The purpose of these covenants is to create a continuing future obligation upon the grantor. As to all or any of them the purchaser may know of a breach at the time he takes title, yet his rights are not affected. It will be noted that the covenants naturally divide into two classes: the first and third covenants relate to the past; the second, fourth and fifth to the future. Those which relate to the past do not run with the land; the others do.