Asmoneans, Or Hasmoneans (Heb. 'Hashmo-naim), the name of a Jewish priestly family which, under its founder Mattathias, the great-grandson of Asmonaeus, and his five sons, liberated Judea from the yoke of Antiochus Epi-phanes and his successors, and subsequently held both the high-priestly and the princely dignity, until supplanted by Herod. They are also known, though not properly, as Maccabees. Mattathias raised the standard of revolt in 167 B. C, dying soon after. His fifth son Jonathan, and his grandson John Hyrcanus, fully established the independence of the country; and the son of the latter, Aristobulus I., assumed the royal title (106). The rivalry of Hyrcanus II. and his brother Aristobulus II., nephew of Aristobulus I., brought about the intervention of Rome, and the disguised subjection to her under Herod. Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, who was the last to fight for the rights of his house, perished by the hand of the Romans (37), and Herod successively extirpated the rest of the house, including his own wife Mariamne and his two sons by her. (See Hebrews).