Barca, a country of Africa, bounded N. by the Mediterranean, E. by Egypt, W. by the gulf of Sidra or Great Syrtis, S. by the Libyan desert. It lies between lat. 29° and 33° N., Ion. 20° and 25° E., and corresponds nearly to the ancient Cyrenaica, although the boundaries are not clearly defined. The population is estimated at about 400,000, mostly nomadic Arabs and Berbers. The northwestern portion is elevated, has a healthy climate, and many fertile tracts producing rice, grain, dates, olives, sugar, tobacco, saffron, and senna; it is well adapted to the culture of grapes. The eastern and southern portions are sandy, gradually merging in the desert. The horses of the country are of a famous breed; there are sheep of the fat-tailed species, camels, and buffaloes. Barca is governed by its beys, who are tributary to the bey of Tripoli. It was an early colony of the Greeks; it afterward became subject to Egypt, and still later a province of the Byzantine empire. It was conquered by the Arabs in 641. The most important towns are Benghazi (anc. Berenice), and Derne (anc. Darnis). (See Cyeenaica).