Barnaul, the chief town in the mining district of the Altai mountains in Siberia, lat. 53° 20' N., lon. 84° E., on the river Barnaulka, a small branch of the Obi, 230 m. S. by W. of Tomsk; pop. about 12,000. All the gold obtained in Siberia must be sent to Barnaul to be smelted, with the exception of that yielded by the Yablonnoi mountains. The gold-washing begins in May and lasts till September, the metal being sent to Barnaul once or twice during the year. It then passes into the control of the government, which in time accounts to the miners for its value. The silver is not separated from the gold in Siberia, but the metal is sent for that purpose to St. Petersburg. The smelting works at Barnaul are on a large scale, and are conducted in the most approved scientific maimer. The governor of Tomsk, who is always chosen from the mining engineers, is required to visit every mine and smelting works at least once in two years. Exploring expeditions are sent out every spring, to prospect in the mining regions. At Barnaul there is a magnetic observatory, whence observations are regularly forwarded to St. Petersburg. There is also a museum, containing a good collection of Siberian minerals, animals, and birds. The market is well supplied.

The workmen live in small wooden cottages, and nearly all the peasants own cows and horses.