Berard. I. Joseph Frederie, a French physician, born in Montpellier,, Nov. 8, 1789, died there, April 16, 1828. He was educated at Montpellier, and distinguished himself as a champion of the theories of the medical school of that city against the materialism of the school of Paris. He spent some years at the capital, where he assisted in editing the Dictionnaire ties sciences medicales, analyzed the experiments of Le Gallois on the vital principle, and opposed the phrenological theories of Gall. Returning to Montpellier, he became professor of therapeutics there, and afterward of hygiene.

He published an Essai sur les anomalies de la variole et de la varicelle (1818); a treatise on the Doctrine medicale de l'ecole de Montpellier (1819); with Rouzet, a commentary on the Maladies chroniques of Dumas (2 vols., 1823); and Doctrine des rapports du physique et du moral (1823), in which he fully exposes his philosophical system and combats the doctrines of Oabanis. II. Pierre Honore, a French surgeon, born at Lichtenberg in 1797, died in 1858. He was elected professor of physiology to the faculty of medicine of Paris in 1831, became dean of that faculty in 1848, and in 1852 was appointed by the president of the republic inspector general of the medical schools, and entered into the new upper council of public instruction. He published a Cours de physiologic (4 vols., Paris, 1848-54), edited the Nou-reaux elements de physiologie of Richerand (1832), and wrote an account of the sickness and death of Cuvier. III. Auguste, brother of the preceding, a French surgeon, born at Var-rains, near Saumur, Aug. 2, 1802, died in Paris, Oct. 15, 1846. He studied at Paris under his brother, became professor of clinical surgery to the faculty of Paris, and was one of the founders of the society of surgery.

He wrote Sur le diagnostic chirurgical (1836), Structure du poumon (1836), and various other treatises, and began with Denonvilliers the elaborate Compendium de chirurgie pratique, continued after his death by Denonvilliers and Gosselin.