Brongniart. I. Alexandre Theodore, a French architect, born in Paris, Feb. 15, 1739, died there, June 6, 1815. He was the son of an apothecary, and at first studied medicine, but afterward became a pupil of Boulee, a noted architect of the day, whom he soon surpassed. He constructed many public and private edifices, designed and laid out the park of Mau-pertuis, and made numerous designs for ornaments, vases, and furniture. Toward the end of his career he was appointed architect of the Bourse and of Pere-la-Chaise. II. Autoine Louis, a French chemist, brother of the preceding, died in Paris, Feb. 24, 1804. He was apothecary to Louis XVI., professor at the college of pharmacy, afterward professor of chemistry applied to the arts, and the colleague of Four-croy at the lyceum of the republic, and also at the jardin des plantes. During a portion of the revolutionary period he was apothecary to the army. He wrote much in the journals of science, and published some important papers on chemistry; among others, Tableau analy-tique des combinaisons et des decompositions de differentes substances (Paris, 1778). III. Alexandre, a French chemist and geologist, son of the architect, born in Paris, Feb. 5, 1770, died there in October, 1847. He was early trained to scientific pursuits, and at the age of 20 was occupied in studying the best means of improving the art of enamelling.
He was afterward engaged in the medical department of the army, and in 1800 was appointed director of the manufactory of porcelain at Sevres. In 1807 he published a treatise on mineralogy, which became a standard work. He was also appointed professor of mineralogy at the jardin des plantes. He undertook the classification of reptiles, described the trilobites, and assisted Cuvier in the study of the fossil remains of extinct types, by exploring the geological formation of Montmartre and its fossil treasures; their joint labors being published in the celebrated Description geologique des environs de Paris. He travelled over the northern and southern parts of Europe, and was the first to give the world, in his Tableau des terrains qui composent Vecorce du globe (Paris, 1829), an accurate chronological account of the different superficial strata of the earth's crust. He was elected member of the academy of sciences in 1815, and was connected with the progress of the physical sciences in nearly all their branches during 40 years. In 1845 he published Traite des arts ceramiques, which is deemed the best work of the kind ever written.
IV. Adolphe Theodore, a French botanist, son of the preceding, born in Paris, Jan. 14, 1801. He first studied medicine, and received his diploma in 1826, but afterward turned his attention to the physiology of plants and antediluvian phytolo-gy. In 1834 he was elected a member of the academy of sciences, as successor to Desfon-taines; and in 1839 professor of botany at the museum of natural history in Paris. His researches have been various, and his writings on fossil vegetables and other branches of his favorite science are numerous.