Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez, a French physician and writer, born at Matagne, March 31, 1796, died at Rodez, Aug. 12, 1865. He was a violent opponent of the restoration of the Bourbons, was engaged in conspiracies against them, and in 1821 was instrumental in founding the French carbonari society, in imitation of that of Italy. A few weeks after the establishment of this society in France, its leaders boasted that it had 200,000 members. The conspiracy was discovered, and many of those engaged in it were convicted and punished with imprisonment. The judges disagreeing in the case of Buchez, he was set free, and immediately devoted himself to scientific studies, published a treatise on hygiene, and established the Journal des progres des sciences et institutions medicates. He was also a contributor to a weekly periodical, Le pro-ducteur, which advocated the doctrines of St. Simon; but when the pantheistic direction of the new doctrine became apparent, he separated himself from the school. After the revolution of 1830, ha established L'Europeen, a review, as the organ of his system, which he denominated Buchezism (1831-'2; 2d series, 1835-'8). In 1833 appeared his Introduction d la science de Vhistoire, ou science du developpe-ment de Vhumanite, in which his philosophical views are elaborately presented.

In concert with M. Roux-Lavergne, he commenced in the same year the publication of the Histoire par-lementaire de la revolution frangaise (40 vols. 8vo, 1833-'8). One of his most important works is the Essai d'uun traite complet de philosopkie, au point de vue du catkolicisme et du progres (3 vols. 8vo, 1839). The revolution of February, 1848, threw him again into politics. He became deputy mayor of Paris under Marrast, was elected member of the national assembly from the department of the Seine, and called to the presidential chair. Not being reelected, he retired to private life, continued his literary and philosophical studies, and published his Histoire de la formation de la nationalitefranpaise (2 vols. 16mo, 1859).