I. Johann Friedrich

Johann Friedrich, a German publisher, born in Altenburg, Jan. 22, 1767, died there, Dec. 21, 1832. He began the study of law, but afterward studied medicine, and settled as a physician in his native city. In 1801 he founded the Liter arisches Comptoir, a bookselling establishment, which he gave up in 1816 to F. A. Brockhaus, but resumed in 1823, giving it the name Literatur-Comptoir. He assisted in the edition of the EncyTclopddisches Worterbuch. edited bv his son. He founded the Medicinische Nationalzeitung (1798) and the Allgemeine medicinische Annalen des 19. Jahrhunderts (1800), and published an edition of the works of Hippocrates (Altenburg, 1806).

II. Heinrich August

Heinrich August, son of the preceding, born in Altenburg, Feb. 26, 1794, died May 12,1850. In 1811 he studied medicine at Jena, and in 1813 joined the army, rose to the rank of major, and resigned in 1831. In 1824 he became editor of the Encyhlopddisches Worterbuch (26 vols., Altenburg, 1824-'36), and afterward, having taken charge of his father's publishing house in his own name, published a new edition (34 vols., 1840-'46). His sons and successors, Victor and Eugen, published a third edition under the title of Universal-Lexikon (17 vols., Altenburg, 1849-'52), a fourth in 1857-'65, and a fifth in 18.69 et sea. A sixth was commenced in 1873 at Oberhausen by Adolph Spaarmann, successor of the Pierers, but suspended, and resumed in 1875.