Botteher, Or Bottiger Bottger, Johann Frie-Drich

Botteher, Or Bottiger Bottger, Johann Frie-Drich, a Saxon alchemist, born at Schleiz, Feb. 4, 1682, died in Dresden, March 13, 1719. His pretended discovery of the philosopher's stone resulted in the invention of Saxon porcelain. After various vicissitudes he gave the elector Augustus an account of his discovery, which is preserved in the archives of Saxony. The elector not availing himself of his suggestions, they were put in application by Count Tschirn-hausen, who established a manufactory at Meissen in 1705, employing Bottger, who succeeded in producing with the reddish brown clay which abounds in the vicinity of Meissen a porcelain of remarkable beauty and solidity. After Tschirnhausen's death Bottger became in 1710 director of a manufactory, but was arrested shortly before his death for having offered to sell the secret of his art. Engelhardt wrote his biography (Leipsic, 1837).

Bottle Tree

Bottle Tree (sterculia [Delabechea] rupes-tris), an Australian tree of the family stercu-Uacece. It has the calyx 5-cleft, usually colored: no petals; column of stamens with 15 or rarely 10 anthers; stigma peltate; carpels 5, distinct, with two or more ovules; narrow, digitate leaves; paniculate, axillary inflorescence; flowers unisexual or polygamous, the female flowers expanding first. The tree has a greatly expanded trunk, which is swollen to a disproportionate size. Where the ground is rocky this expansion is greatest just below the branches; but in favorable soils the foot of the tree is largest, forming a uniform cylindrical column, from whose summit the branches issue as from the neck of a bottle.

Bottle Tree of Australia.

Bottle Tree of Australia.


See Bozzaris.

Bou Maza

Bou Maza, an Arab chief, born in Algeria about 1820. He was a dervish, who in 1845 roused the population of the Dahra against the French, participating in many conflicts and cooperating with Abd-el-Kader in Morocco. On April 18, 1847, he was compelled to surrender to Saint-Arnaud and sent to Paris. A liberal pension was granted to him, and he was provided with handsome lodgings; but being caught in an attempt to leave Paris in the night of Feb. 23, 1848, he was removed to Ham and detained in the fortress till July, 1849, and in the city till 1852. He was sent to the theatre of war in the East in 1854, and commanded a corps of irregular troops, receiving in 1855 a colonelcy in the army.


Boufarik, a town of Algeria, in the centre of the plain of Metidja, 16 m. S. by W. of Algiers; pop. in 1866, 5,267, about half Europeans. In 1832 Gen. d'Erlon established here an intrenched camp in the midst of a malarious swamp, and the early colonists suffered much from fevers; but by means of draining, the district has been rendered one of the most healthy and fertile in Algeria, producing the mulberry tree, grain, fruit, cotton, and. tobacco. The town carries on an extensive trade, and is the seat of a large fair. Being upon the direct route from Algiers to Blidah and Oran, it is an important military post.