Brockhaus. I. Friedrich Arnold, founder of the publishing firm of Brockhaus in Leipsic, Germany, born at Dortmund, May 4,1772, died in Leipsic, Aug. 20,1823. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native town, and afterward sent into a merchant's counting-room at Diisseldorf. In 1793 he went to Leipsic, where he devoted himself for two years to the acquisition of scientific knowledge and the principal modern languages of Europe. In 1795 he established at Dortmund a mercantile house for the sale of English manufactures, which he removed to Arnhem in the Netherlands in 1801, and to Amsterdam in 1802. Although he managed his business with success in a pecuniary sense, he abandoned it out of distaste for mercantile pursuits in 1804, and entered into the book trade at Amsterdam. A periodical in Dutch (De Ster, "The Star"), started by Brockhaus in 1806, and devoted to politics and literature, was suppressed by the government on account of its opinions on political and ecclesiastical matters. The . Amsterdamsch Avond-Journal ("Amsterdam Evening Journal"), which succeeded the Ster, did not continue long.

The confusion into which Europe was thrown by the Napoleonic wars was unfavorable to literary enterprises, and after the annexation of Holland to the French empire (1810) Brockhaus returned to Germany, and opened an establishment in Altenburg (1811). In 1808 Brockhaus purchased the copyright of the German Conversations-Lexicon, which had been commenced in 1796. In 1809-'10 he completed the first edition by the publication of two supplementary volumes. In 1812 he began to publish the second edition of this work, which was finished under his own editorship. Shortly before the battle of Leipsic he commenced a political newspaper called Deutsche Blatter, which breathed a patriotic German spirit. This journal lasted from Oct. 14, 1813, to May, 1816. The peace of 1815 enabled him to enter upon large literary undertakings. In 1817 the business had increased to such an extent that Brockhaus removed to Leipsic, and added a printing office to his former establishment. His Conversations-Lexikon ran through six editions in his lifetime, and numerous other publications of the first rank raised the firm to a high position in German literature.

Among the more important publications of the firm during the lifetime of its founder may be mentioned Ebert's Allgemeines bibliographisches Lexicon (1821) and Von Raumer's Geschichte der Hohenstaufen (1823), besides several periodicals edited by himself; among these is the Literarisches Wochenblatt, now published as the Blatter fur literarische Unterhaltung.' His liberalism brought him under the ban of the reactionary Prussian government, which in 1821 ordered a censorship upon all the publications of Brockhaus, which lasted until his death. His biography was published by one of his relatives in 1872 (2 vols.). - The firm of F. A. Brockhaus was continued .by the two sons of the founder, Friedrich and Heinrich. Under their auspices the Conversations-Lexikon has passed through five new editions (11th ed., 15 vols., 1864-'8, with a supplement in 2 vols., 1872-3), to which several companion works were added from time to time, namely: the Conversations-Lexikon der neuesten Zeit und Lite-ratur (1832-'4), the Conversations-Lexikon der Gegenwart (1838-'41), and the Gegenwart (1848 -'56). In January, 1857, the firm commenced a supplementary work of this character, called Unsere Zeit, Jahrbuch zum Conversations-Lexikon, published in monthly and ultimately in semi-monthly parts, which is still continued.

The Systematischer Bilder-Atlas zum Conversations-Lexikon was published between 1844 and 1851. In 1854-'6 an abridgment of the 10th edition of the Conversations-Lexikon appeared in 4 volumes (Kleineres Brockhaus' schcs Conversations-Lexikon; 2d ed., 1861-4). The " Encyclopaedia Americana," edited by Dr. Francis Lieber (Philadelphia, 1829-'33), was based upon the 7th edition of the Conversations-Lexikon. Among the most notable periodical publications of this firm are the continuation since 1832 of the Allgemcine Ency-klopadie der Wissenschaften und Kunste, by Ersch and Gruber; the Pfennig-Magazin; the Leipziger Allgemeine Zeitung, commenced in 1837; and the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, since 1843. In 1850 Friedrich Brockhaus retired from business, and Heinrich for a time constituted alone the firm of F. A. Brockhaus; in 1854 and 1863 his two sons, Heinrich Edu-ard and Heinrich Rudolf, upon reaching respectively their 25th year, were admitted as members of the firm. The firm of F. A. Brockhaus has printing, lithographing, binding, and type-founding establishments connected with its book-publishing and general bookselling business.

II. Hermann, a German orientalist, third son of Friedrich Arnold, born in Amsterdam, Jan. 28,1806. He studied the oriental languages at Leipsic, Gottingen, and Bonn. The languages and literature of Hindostan especially engaged his attention; for the better acquisition of this branch of knowledge he resided for a long time in Paris, London, and Oxford. In 1839 he was appointed professor extraordinary at the university of Jena, and in 1841 at Leipsic. In 1848 he was called to the chair of Sanskrit language and literature in the latter university. He has edited and published several Sanskrit and Persian works, some of them in Roman type. He was one of the founders of the German oriental society, the Zeitschrift issued by which he has edited since 1852. In 1856 he undertook the editing of Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopadie.