Saint Bernard, Great and Little. See Saint Bernard.
Saint Bernard, a S. E. parish of Louisiana, between the gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi river, having Lake Borgne on the north; area, 620 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,553, of whom 1,913 were colored. The surface is level and the soil fertile, the higher portions producing large crops of sugar cane. The chief productions in 1870 were 12,775 bushels of Indian corn, 32,767 of sweet potatoes, 190,480 lbs. of rice, 61 bales of cotton, 680 hogsheads of sugar, and 42,580 gallons of molasses. There were 7 molasses and sugar establishments. Capital, St. Bernard.
Great, a mountain pass in the Pennine chain of Alps, between Martigny in the Swiss canton of Valais and the Pied-montese valley of Aosta. There is no mountain bearing the name. The highest point of the pass is about 8,000 ft. above the sea. On the east is Mont Velan and on the west the Pointe de Dronaz. At the highest elevation of the pass, near the line of perpetual snow, is the hospice or monastery of St. Bernard, the highest dwelling in Europe. Its inmates are Augustinian monks, assisted by lay brethren (marronniers), celebrated with their dogs for rescuing travellers. In their hospice at times as many as 500 or 600 travellers have been accommodated at once. The snow around the hospice averages 7 to 8 ft. in depth, and the drifts sometimes rest against it and accumulate to the height of 40 ft. The severest cold recorded was 29° below zero, and the greatest heat 68° F. A monastery is believed to have existed on the Great St. Bernard previous to the foundation of the present hospice by St. Bernard of Menthon, in 962. Its most flourishing period was at the end of the 15th century, but it now depends on gifts and collections.
The route over the Pennine Alps by the Great St. Bernard was traversed by Roman armies, by armies under Charlemagne and Frederick Barbarossa, and in May, 1800, by a French army under Napoleon. A wagon road from Martigny to Liddes was completed in 1850.
Little, a mountain of the Graian Alps, S. of Mont Blanc, on the frontier of Savoy, about 7,200 ft. high. It has a comparatively easy pass leading from the valley of the Isère into that of the Dora Baltea, which is believed to have been traversed by Hannibal in his descent into Italy. At a height of 7,076 ft. above the level of the sea is another convent founded by St. Bernard of Menthon for the relief of travellers.