Saint Gall (Ger. Sanct-Gallen).

I. A N. E. Canton Of Switzerland

A N. E. Canton Of Switzerland, bounded N. by Thur-gau, N. E. by the lake of Constance, E. by the Rhine, which separates it from Vorarlberg and Liechtenstein, S. by Glarus, and W. by the lake of Zürich; area (exclusive of the canton of Appenzell, which it entirely encloses), 780 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 191,015, nearly all Germans, and two thirds Roman Catholics. It is watered by tributaries of the Rhine, including the Thur, the Sitter, and the Necker. . Lake Wallen is almost entirely in this canton. The S. part of the canton is one of the lofty Alpine regions of Switzerland, Mounts Scheibe, Graue Hörner, and Speerberg being within its limits. The whole surface of the canton is mountainous. The soil is generally fertile. The mountainous districts are covered with wood or rich pasture, and on the lower slopes are vineyards and orchards. The most important manufacture is that of cotton. The government is democratic. The great council is composed of 88 Catholics and 62 Protestants, elected for two years, and meeting twice a year. The executive council is composed of seven members, chosen by the great council from their own number and holding office four years. The canton was admitted to the confederation in 1803. It is divided into 15 districts.

The constitution of 1861 made the church virtually independent of the state, and the latter controls education.

II. A City

A City, capital of the canton, on the Steinach, a branch of the Sitter, 43 m. E. of Zürich; pop. in 1870, 16,676. The suburbs are finely laid out, and command beautiful views. It is the centre of the manufacture of muslins and of the trade of N. E. Switzerland. The principal buildings are the cathedral, the restored Gothic church of St. Lawrence, and the new school house with a large library and museum. The city grew up around an abbey built by St. Gall in the 7th century. (See Gall.) It was received into the Helvetic confederation in 1454. The abbey was secularized in 1805; it is now the residence of the bishop, and contains an extensive library, remarkable for old German manuscripts.