Werner Munzinger, a Swiss traveller, born at Olten in 1832. He- studied at Bern, Munich, and Pans, and in 1852 established himself as a merchant in Egypt, in 1854-'o resided at Mas-Bowah, and for nearly six years explored the 1and of the Bogos and adjoining territories. He joined Henglin'a expedition in July, 1861; left it in November, in northern Abyssinia! and travelled with Kinzelbacb over an unexplored region, ascertaining the course of the river Gash, and returning to Khartoum March 1, 1862. Shortly after he succeeded Heuglin as chief of the German-African expedition. He penetrated to Kordofan, but was unable to reach Darfoor and Waday, and went to Europe. In 1864 he returned to Massowah, where he became British consul, and rendered valuable services as a guide to the English army during the Abyssinian war. In 1868, after the de-parture of the English troops, he continued to reside at Massowah as French consul. In the following year, while he was exploring the N. boundary of Abyssinia, an attempt was made upon his life by an assassin, and he was severely wounded.

In 1870 he was named governor of Massowah, and visited with Capt. Miles the S. E. coast of Arabia. In 1871 he explored new territories N. of the land of the Bogos. His principal works are: Sitten und Recht der Bogos (Wintertlmr, 1859); Ost-afrikanische Studien (Schaffhausen, 1864); Die deutsche Expedition in Ostajrika (Gotha, 1865); Vocahulaire de la langue Tigre; and contributions to the journal of the London geographical society (1871-'2), and to Peter-mann's Mittheilungen (1872 et seq.).