Yarkand, a city of East Turkistan, on the left bank of the river Yarkand, about 105 m. (according to the latest maps) S. E. of Kashgar; lat. 38° 20' N.,lon. 77Q 30'E.; pop. estimated by some at more than 100,000, but by late authorities at 30,000. It is surrounded by an earthen wall, and has two stone citadels, one on the S. side and one within the walls. The streets are intersected by canals. There are many caravansaries and mosques, two large bazaars, and several Mohammedan colleges. Silk, cotton, linen, and woollen cloths are manufactured, and an active trade is carried on with the surrounding cities. The trade in horses is important, and horse flesh is sold in the markets. Yarkand was formerly the capital of the Mohammedan kingdom of Kashgar, and was conquered by the Chinese in 1757. In 1863 a revolt broke out, which resulted in the expulsion of the Chinese and the formation of a Mohammedan government, with the capital at Kashgar. - The river Yarkand rises in the Karakorum mountains, flows N. W. and N. E., and joins the Kashgar more than 300 m. below the city.

The united streams form the Tarim, which drains the great plain of East Turkistan and empties into Lake Lob.