Yunnan, a S. W. province of China, bounded N. W. by Thibet, N. by Szechuen, E. by Kweichow and Kwangsi, S. by Anam, Laos, and Siam, and S. W. by Burmah; area, 107,969 sq. m.; pop. according to the census of 1812, 5,561,320, and estimated in 1876 at about 6,000,000. The lakes of Yunnan are celebrated, and the Talifu, in the northwest, is over 100 m. long by 20 m. broad. The main rivers are the Yangtse in the north and the Lantsan running S. into the gulf of Siam. The Tonquin affords easy access to S. Yunnan. The country is mountainous and has little tillage. A portion of the people are Mohammedans, and civil conflicts have arisen, whence industry and agriculture have greatly declined. There are very valuable mines, but they are not worked. The capital, of the same name, on the N. shore of Lake Chin, is an important manufacturing and trading place. - For the Mohammedan rebellion in Yunnan and the extinction of the empire of the Panthays, see Crista, vol. iv., p. 464. In 1868 an expedition was sent from British India to explore the route through Burmah to Yunnan, with a view to promoting trade.
In 1875 a second expedition set out to complete the work, which was joined at Bhamo by Mr. Margary, who had been sent from Shanghai and passed through Yunnan. They met with hostility in their progress, and Mr. Margary, entering Manwyne alone, was murdered. The expedition returned, and a new one was sent in 1876, which secured reparation for the murder. - See "Mandalay to Momien: a Narrative of the two Expeditions to Western China of 1868 and 1875, under Col. Edward B. Sladen and Col. Horace Browne," by John Anderson, M. D. (London, 1876).