Certiorari (Lat. eertvs fieri, to be made more certain, to be certified), a writ used for the purpose of removing the record in a par-' ticular case, whether civil or criminal, from an inferior to a superior tribunal, either as an auxiliary process to enable complete effect to be given to some other process, or as a distinct mode of appeal. In American practice it is usually employed to review the proceedings of courts not of record, and of municipal corporations in certain cases, and the determinations of special tribunals, commissioners, and other officers exercising judicial powers which affect the citizen in his rights or his property, and acting in a summary way, or in a course different from that of the common law.


Cervia, a town of Italy, on the Adriatic, in the province and 12 m. S. S. E. of Ravenna; pop. about 0,000. It is situated in the vicinity of marshes which contain the most important salt works in the country, and is the seat of a bishopric.

Cesar Daly

Cesar Daly, a French architect, born in Verdun in 1809. He is a pupil of Felix Durban, and was employed to restore the cathedral of Albi. In 1840 he founded the Revue de l'architecture et des travaux publics, a richly illustrated monthly periodical. In this he has published a plan of a complete Fourierite phalanstery, and in 1855 he made a visit to Cabet's communist colony in the United States. His principal published works are L'Architecture privee au XIXe sieclesous Napoleon III. (3 vols, fol., 1860-'64), and Motifs historiques d'architecture et de sculpture (46 nos. fol., 1864-'7).

Cesar De Bazancourt

Cesar De Bazancourt, baron, a French writer, born in 1810, died in Paris, Jan. 25, 1865. Under Louis Philippe he was director of the library at Compiegne, and wrote numerous novels and • a "History of Sicily under Norman Domination" (2 vols., 1846). Under Napoleon III. he became the official historian of the Crimean and Italian campaigns. His works on those subjects (each 2 vols., 1857 and 1859-'60) passed through many editions. He also wrote a history of the French expeditions to China and Cochin China (2 vols., 1861-'2), and a work on fencing (Les secrets de l'epee, 1861).

Cesar De Bellecour Laugier

Cesar De Bellecour Laugier, count de, an Italian soldier and author, of French origin, born at Porto Ferrajo, Elba, Oct. 5, 1789). He served in the French and Italian armies, distinguishing himself in May, 1848, at Curtatone, at the head of the Tuscan forces, against the Austrians; but in 1849 he opposed the Tuscan patriots in the interest of monarchy, and was obliged to seek refuge in Piedmont until the restoration of the grand duke Leopold II., after which he was minister of Avar till October, 1851. He is one of the most voluminous and able writers of Italy; his principal work is Fastes et vicissitudes des peuples italiens de 1801 a 1815 (13 vols., Florence, 1829-'32).