Cajamarca (formerly Caxamarca). I. A N. department of Peru, bounded by the departments of Amazonas, Piura, Loreto, Ancachs, and Libertad; area, about 14,000 sq. m.; pop. 273,-000, including many mestizos and Indians, many of the latter being descendants of the Incas. The plain of Cajamarca, which bears a strong resemblance to that of Bogota, and like it was probably once the bed of a lake, is one of the most fertile in South America. The wheat harvest in the pampa is from 15 to 20 fold; but it is sometimes blighted by night frosts. Small mounds or hillocks of porphyry, once perhaps islands in the lake, are studded over the northern part of the plain, and break the wide expanse of smooth sandstone. Agriculture, cattle raising, the manufacture of coarse woollen, linen, and cotton fabrics, and washing for gold, constitute the chief occupations of the inhabitants. The department is divided into the provinces of Cajamarca, Cajabamba, Ce-lendin, Chota, Jaen, Hualgayoc, and Contu-maza. II. A city, capital of the department and province, on a river of the same name, in the valley of Caiamarca, 365 m.

N. N. W. of Lima; pop. about 20,000. The original name of this city, the scene of the arrest, captivity, and judicial murder of the Inca Ata-huallpa in 1533, was Oasamarca, " city of frost." It lies at an elevation equal to that of Quito; but being sheltered by the surrounding mountains, its climate is mild and agreeable. In every direction in the vicinity are seen cultivated fields and gardens intersected by avenues of willows, varieties of the datura, bearing red, white, and yellow flowers, mimosas, and beautiful quinuar trees. The streets are wide and regular, and the houses, for the most part of mud and whitewashed, present a lively and pleasing aspect. The appearance of the churches, nearly all of cut stone of enormous dimensions, and embellished with spires and cupolas, is unusually imposing. A considerable trade is carried on with some of the seaports, especially Trujillo, and a railway now in process of construction (1873) will shortly connect Cajamarca with the port of Pacasmayo. Woollen, linen, and cotton goods, sword blades, daggers, and other articles of steel and of the precious metals, form the most important industry of the inhabitants.

Near the city stand the remains of the ancient residence of Atahuallpa, surrounded by fruit gardens and irrigated fields of lucerne; while in the distance are seen columns of smoke rising from the warm sulphur springs of Pulta-marca, still called Baflos del Inca, the Inca's baths. Some portions of the Inca's palace in the city, situated on a hill of porphyry, and originally hollowed out of the solid rock, have been converted into a jail and a town hall. The room in which Atahuallpa was confined for nine months is still pointed out. The custom of burying treasure was common among the ancient Peruvians, and subterraneous chambers still exist beneath many private dwellings in Cajamarca.