Caylis. I. Marthe Marguerite de Villette de Murcay, marquise de, a French woman of fashion, born in Poitou in 1673, died April 25,1729. A descendant of D'Aubigne, she was converted to Roman Catholicism by her relative Mme. de Maintenon, and acquired celebrity as one of the brilliant wits and social leaders of the French court. Of a precocious beauty, she married in 1686 the marquis de Caylus, a drunkard, who died in November, 1704. Racine, delighted with her histrionic genius, wrote for her the prologue to his tragedy of Esther. Her fondness for raillery caused her banishment from the court. Her unhappy marriage led her on her return to accept the duke of Villeroi as her lover. Voltaire remarked that she could not have chosen better, but Mme. de Main-tenon, whom she humorously called Nero, had her once more sent out of the capital. She came back in February, 1707, and after Mme. de Maintenon's death in 1719 her lover resided permanently at her house. Her famous Souvenirs were edited with notes and a preface by Voltaire (1770; new eds., 1804 and 1806), who regarded them as masterpieces of candor and wit; and Sainte-Beuve assigned to her a distinguished place in his Galerics des femmes cele-bres (1858). II. Anne Claude Philippe de Tubieres, count, a French archaeologist, son of the preceding, born in Paris, Oct. 31, 1692, died Sept. 5, 1765. He early entered the military service, and distinguished himself in the war of the Spanish succession.
He then devoted himself to literary pursuits and to travel, and published the results of his studies and researches in Recueil d'antiquites egyptiennes, etrusques, grccques, romaines et gauloises (7 vols. 4to). The last volume appeared in 1707, two years after his death. He wrote also several shorter works on art and antiquities, and a number of novels of no great merit. In 1805 appeared the Souvenirs du comte de Caylus (2 vols. 12mo).