Croydon, a market town and parish of Surrey, England, on the London and Brighton railway, 10 m. S. of London; pop. in 1871, 20,325. The houses are mostly well built, and the streets, the main one a mile long, are paved and lighted with gas. It has an elegant and capacious church of freestone, built in the 15th century, two modern churches, several chapels and schools, a hospital, an almshouse richly endowed for the maintenance of 34 decayed housekeepers, a literary and scientific institution, a handsome town hall, a barrack, a jail, breweries, bleacheries, and calico print works. The manor of Croydon (called in the Domesday Book Cruie-dune, chalk hill), together with a royal palace, was given at the Norman conquest to Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, whose successors resided here for a long time. The palace has been gradually rebuilt since 1278, and the oldest portion now left is of the 14th century. In 1780 it was converted into a calico factory, which has since been abandoned. A girls' industrial school is taught in the old chapel.

In consequence of the facility of communication between Croydon and the metropolis, it has of late years become the residence of large numbers of persons doing business in London. Many fine dwellings have been added to it, and its population has rapidly increased.