Hayduks , a class of Hungarians who were originally shepherds (Hung. hajdu), and from whom patriotic militia organizations subsequently received the name. The gallantry of the Hayduks was signally rewarded by Boes-kay, prince of Transylvania and the protector of the rights of the Protestants, who endowed them, Dec. 12, 1605, with privileges of nobility, and assigned to them a district known as the Hayduk towns (Hajdu-varosok); and they have retained most of those privileges, excepting immunity from taxation, which was withdrawn by the emperor Charles VI. at the beginning of the 18th century. The district is enclosed within the county of Szabolcs, E. of the Theiss, and comprised in 1870 an aggregate population of 59,715, almost all Magyars and Protestants. Besides the capital, Boszor-meny (pop. 19,208), it contains the towns of Dorog (8,216), Hadhaz (7,024), Nanas (13,198), and Szoboszlo (12,269). - Menials of Hungarian officials and magnates having been called hayduks, the name was adopted at German courts for ponderous lacqueys, though these are generally Germans or Swiss, and not Hungarians.