Horn , a musical wind instrument, originally formed, as its name denotes, from the horn of an animal. The name includes a large family of instruments, many of which have fallen into disuse. The hunting horn, a brass or copper tube gradually expanding into a bell-shaped mouth, and bent into a semicircle, was long the chief form. The instrument has been so greatly improved as to rank among the first in the orchestra. The French horn consists of a metallic tube, about ten feet in length, bent into several circular folds, and gradually widening toward the end whence the sound issues, called by the French the pavilion. It is blown through a cup-shaped mouthpiece, and the sounds are regulated by the motion of the player's lips, the pressure of his breath, and by inserting a hand or a pasteboard cone in the pavilion. Horns are generally used in pairs, and are blown in different manners, the first horn in the orchestra generally making use of two octaves, and the second of three. For the purpose of adapting them to different keys, shifting pieces, called crooks or shanks, are added to the lower part of the tube. Music for the horn is always written in the key of C, an octave higher than it is played.

In order to procure clear and distinct sounds of all the notes, the piston was added to the horn by Stoelzel. (See Cornet-a-Pistons.) Great improvements have been made in the instrument by Sax of Paris, whose horn, modelled after the antique, affords a far greater volume of sound than the old instrument. The basset horn and the English horn are not properly horns, the former belonging to the clarinets and the latter to the hautboys. The Russian horn is a straight brass tube of various size, expanding toward the lower end.

Horn #1

Horn , €ape. See Cape Horn.