Italian Patriots Attilio And Emilio Bandiera, born respectively in 1817 and 1819, executed at Cosenza, July 25, 1844. They were lieutenants in the Austrian navy, and were the sons of an Austrian vice admiral of a noble Venetian family. Joining the conspiracy for Italian freedom, they took refuge in Corfu in March, 1844, whence with 20 others they effected a landing in Calabria June 16; but being betrayed by one of their number, they fell into the hands of the Neapolitan forces near San Giovanni in Fiore. The two brothers were summarily executed. Their patriotism and heroic spirit created a strong sympathy in their favor in England, where Sir James Graham, then postmaster general, was severely censured for his supposed share in their fate by opening and disclosing their correspondence with Maz-zini. In France, Deschamps and Louise Collet wrote poetry in their honor, and in Italy, Maz-zini's work on their martyrdom had a wide circulation, as well as Ricciardi's Storia del fratelli B. e consorti (Florence, 1863).