Juba I.king of Numidia, son of Hiempsal (who had been restored to the throne by Pom-pey), died by his own hand in 46 B. C. Juba succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, and in the conflict between Caesar and Pompey he sided with the latter, both from enmity to Caesar, with whom he had quarrelled on an official visit to Rome during his father's lifetime, and from friendship for the man to whom his father owed his crown. The moment Curio, Caesar's lieutenant, landed in Africa (49), Juba hastened to the succor of Atius Varus, the commander of Pompey's forces. Varus had already been defeated under the walls of Utica; but on the approach of Juba, Curio retreated and assumed a strong post near the sea. He was drawn from his position by a stratagem, and overthrown, himself being slain, and his army almost cut to pieces. Juba sullied the glory of this victory by cruelty, causing some cohorts of cavalry who had surrendered to be massacred. He enjoyed his kingdom in peace till 46 B. C, when Caesar arrived in Africa to crush the last remnant of the Pompeian faction. Bocchus, king of Mauritania, was incited to invade Ju-ba's dominions, and a Roman force was sent to cooperate with him.
Juba heard of their inroad on the way to join Scipio, the Pompeian commander, and turned against them, but finally went to Scipio's aid. The rival hosts encountered at Thapsus, and the result proved fatal to the Numidian and his allies. Juba, fleeing from the field, wandered about for a few days as a fugitive, and then in despair killed himself. After his death his kingdom was formed into a Roman province, of which the historian Sallust was the first governor. - His infant son, Juba II., was taken to Rome and carefully educated, and became a favorite of Octavius, who in 30 B. C. restored him to his father's kingdom, which in 25 was exchanged for Mauritania and a part of Gaetu-lia. He wrote many valuable historical and other works, all of which are lost. He is supposed to have died about A. D. 18.