I. A central government of Russia, bordering on Smolensk, Moscow, Tula, and Orel; area, 11,927 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 984,255. The surface is in general very level. It is watered by numerous rivers, the principal of which is the Oka. The soil is of a sandy or strong clayey nature, and only moderately fertile. More than half of this province is under forest. The climate is one of the mildest in Russia. Iron, coal, chalk, and gypsum are found. Woollens, linens, sail cloth, etc, are manufactured. II. A city, capital of the government, on the left bank of the Oka, 95 m. S. W. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 36,080. It is irregularly built, being 7 m. in circumference, though not containing more than 4,000 houses, chiefly of wood. It is surrounded by a rampart which has been converted into a public promenade. It contains 23 churches, a theological college, nunnery, hospital, gymnasium, government house, orphan asylum, public library, and theatre. It is a place of considerable trade, and the chief seat of the manufactures of the province. A commercial bank was founded here by a public-spirited citizen in 1859, the profits to be applied to charitable purposes. Political offenders of high rank have been banished to Kaluga for many years past.
Shamyl was removed to Kaluga in 1859.