I. A country of central Asia, one of the three great khanates of West Turkistan or Independent Tartary, lying between lat. 39° and 43° N, and lon. 69° and 75° E.; bounded S. W., W., N, and N. E. by the new Russian province of Sir Darya, E. and S. E. by East Turkistan, and S. by the Pamir plateau and Karateghin. It is enclosed by lofty snow-covered mountain ranges on the south and southeast, dividing the basin of the Amoo Darya or Oxus from that of the Sir Darya (the ancient Jaxartes), which is the principal river of Khokan, receiving all its streams. The precise area of the khanate is unknown, but it is largely comprised in an almond-shaped valley about 165 m. long and with an extreme width of 65 m. Prior to the Russian advance in 1864, the fertile valley of the Sir Darya as far N. W. as Tashkend was included within its boundaries, but at present the western frontier of Khokan crosses the river between the capital and the city of Khojend. The general elevation of the country exceeds 1,500 ft. above the sea level. The winter is severe in the mountainous tracts, but a milder climate prevails in the main valley, where but little snow falls. In summer the heat is excessive during the day, but the nights are cool.
The most fertile portion of the khanate is the rich territory about the city of Andijan, near the centre of the country, formerly known as the province of Ferghana; but irrigation is extensively practised, and the soil throughout the country is extremely productive. The cereals are wheat, barley, and rice; there .is a large cotton crop; and hemp, flax, sorghum, peas, beans, madder, and tobacco are also cultivated. Khokan is noted for the excellence and variety of its fruits. The manufacture of a fine quality of silk is a leading branch of industry. In 1872 the chief articles of export were cotton, of which about 8,000,000 lbs. were sent to Russia, and silk, of which the same country received about 200,000 lbs. Many districts afford pasturage for large and thriving herds of horses, asses, horned cattle, sheep, and camels. Coal, iron, naphtha, and petroleum are known to exist in the mountains; turquoises of an inferior quality and greenish hue are also found. The population is estimated at 3,000,000, and includes Uzbecks, who are the military and dominant class, Tajiks, Kirghiz, and Kiptchaks. A commercial treaty between Khokan and Russia was negotiated in 1868, and the khanate is virtually under Russian protection and control. (See Turkistan.) II. A city, capital of the khanate, situated in a beautiful valley a short distance S. of the Sir Darya, about 220 m.
E. N. E. of Samarcand, 1,540 ft. above the level of the sea. According to Vambery, it is three times as large as Bokhara and six times as large as Khiva. Estimates of the population vary from 30,000 to 60,000. There are four stone mosques in the city, and numerous bazaars in which Russian goods are sold, as well as native silks and woollens, and handsome leather equipments for riding.