I. Jean Joseph, marquis do, a French financier, born at Jaca, Aragon, in 1724, guillotined in Paris, April 18, 1794. He amassed a large fortune in mercantile operations, and rendered important financial assistance to the government, for which he was made court banker and a marquis. When the French took part in the American war, he furnished the king with the money for despatching the troops. He was a friend of Voltaire, whose affairs he managed gratuitously. Toward the end of 1793 he was arrested, and, after a few months' imprisonment, sentenced to death by the revolutionary tribunal, as having participated in the royalist plots for the subversion of the republic.
II. Alexandre Louis Joseph, count de, son of the preceding, a French archaeologist and politician, born in Paris, Sept. 15, 1774, died there, Oct. 24,1842. He was sent to Vienna at the beginning of the revolution, entered the Austrian army, reached the rank of major, and returned to France after the treaty of Campo Formio (1797). He then devoted himself to travels and artistic pursuits. In 1800 he accompanied Lucien Bonaparte, ambassador to Spain, and during nearly two years explored the provinces of the peninsula, in company with several artists, whose expenses he paid. On his return to France he undertook the publication of his great work, Voyage pittoresque et historique de l'Espagne (4 vols, large fol., 1807-'18), which cost him the better part of his fortune. He afterward held several offices, and was a member of the chamber of deputies for most of the time from 1822 to 1840. He took an active part in the revolution of 1830, and was for some time prefect of the Seine, and afterward aide-de-camp to Louis Philippe. Besides the Voyage de l'Espagne, he published Itineraire descriptif de l'Espagne (5 vols. 8vo, with an atlas, 1809); Les monuments de la France, classes chronologiquement, etc. (fol., 1816-'26); Voyage pittoresque en Autriche, area un precis de la guerre entre la France et l'Autriche, 1809 (3 vols, fol., 1821-'3), etc.
III. Leon Emmanuel Simon Joseph, count de, a French archa3ologist, son of the preceding, born in Paris in June, 1807, died there, March 30, 1869. He studied at Gottingen, travelled in the East, and on his return published, in conjunction with M. Linant, Voyage de l'Arable Peiree (Paris, 1830-'33), and Flore de l'Arabie Petree (4to, 1833). In 1837 he began a large and splendid publication, Voyage en Orient, consisting of travels in Asia Minor and Syria, which was published in parts and finished in 1862. In 1842 his Commentaire geographique sur l'Exode et les Nombres secured his election to the academy of inscriptions. In 1841 he entered the chamber of deputies, where he showed little interest in political questions. In 1845-'7 he published a series of letters on public libraries, the fourth of which, on the Mazarin palace, is full of historical interest. This led him to a larger illustrated publication, Les anciens monuments de Paris; the first part was published in 4to in 1846, but it was not continued. He was also the author of the following unfinished works: Les ducs de Bour-gogne, etudes sur les lettres, les arts et l'in-dustrie pendant le 15e siecle (2 vols. 8vo, 1849-'51); La renaissance des arts d la cour de France (vol. i., Peinture, 1855); and De l'union des arts et de l'industrie (2 vols. 8vo, 1856). He was for several years curator of the antiquities in the Louvre, but resigned in 1854, and in 1857 was appointed director of the archives of the empire.