Manna, the concrete juice of several species offrarinus, or ash. Several of the ashes have tlowers producing distinct petals, a character which some botanists consider a sufficient reason for placing them in a distinct genus, or-nus the flowering ashes. (See Ash.) The principal manna-bearing species are F. ornus and F. rotundifolia, natives of southern Europe and Asia Minor. The juice spontaneously exudes in the summer months, from the punctures of an insect, cicada orni, but is increased by transverse incisions made for the purpose in the hark. The liner kind, known as flake manna, is from incisions in the upper part of the stem; it dries upon the tree in long Hakes, which when removed have the under surface conformed to the trunk of the tree and the upper of irregular and somewhat stalactitic appearance. The coarser kinds are obtained near the roots of the tree, where the juice is collected in joints of the pricklv pear (opuntia) or upon straw placed to receive it. It is an article of import forth- sake of its medicinal qualities and is obtained chiefly from Sicilv and Calabria, The best is of a whitish or light yellow color in Hakes and tears, while the poorer sorts are darker colored from the imparities with which they are mixed.

It possesses a sweet, somewhat nauseous taste, and is soluble in water or in alcohol. From its boiling saturated solution it separates on cooling in crystalline form. It consists of a crystallizable sweet principle called mannite, which sometimes amounts to 75 per cent.; of true sugar; and of a yellow nauseous matter, which it is supposed gives to the manna its purgative property. For the sake of this it is used in medicine, and is commonly prescribed with other purgatives, as senna, rhubarb, magnesia, etc, the taste of which it conceals, while it increases their effect. When given alone, the dose for an adult is one or two ounces. - Various other saccharine exudations of plants are called manna; the manna of Briancon, which appears upon the twigs of the European larch (larix Europma), is formed during the night, and soon disappears after the sun falls upon it. Another substance called manna is obtained by the Bedouin Arabs from the tamarix mannife-ra. After collecting it from among the twigs and leaves, they boil it, then strain it through cloth, and put it away in leathern bags to be eaten like honey with bread, as a delicate article of food.

Dr. Robinson, in his "Biblical Researches in Palestine," mentions its being collected in small quantities by the Arabs of Mt, Sinai, and sold at very high prices to the Russians. According to Berthelot, the tama-, risk manna from Sinai contains 55 per cent, of cane sugar, 25 of inverted sugar, and 20 of dextrine, etc, Manna from Kurdistan contains 61 per cent, of cane sugar, 16.5 of inverted sugar, and 22.5 of dextrine. The Sinai manna is soluble in water or alcohol, and the aqueous solution readily undergoes fermentation, yielding an alcohol possessing a butyric acid odor. - Though the name is probably derived from the Syriac mano, a gift, which was applied to the Scriptural manna, it cannot be proved that there is any relationship between the natural products designated by this name and the substance mentioned in Scripture (Heb. man) as miraculously supplied to the Israelites.

The Manna Ash (Fruxinus ornus).

The Manna Ash (Fruxinus ornus).