Maximilien Paul Emile Littre, a French philologist, born in Paris, Feb. 1, 1801. He was educated for the profession of medicine, but his attention has always been given chiefly to philosophical and literary pursuits. After the revolution of July, 1830, he became one of the contributors to the National newspaper, the organ of the democratic party, his connection with which lasted until its suppression in 1851. He wrote a number of papers for the Diction-naire de medecine, among which is an important article on Asiatic cholera. In 1837, in concert with Dezeimeris, he established a medical and surgical journal, and at the same time was employed in editing and translating the works of Hippocrates. The first volume appeared in 1839, and procured his admission to the academy of inscriptions. The 10th and last volume was published in 1861. In 1839-'40 he published a translation of Strauss's " Life of Jesus." He became a prominent promoter of the doctrines of Auguste Comte, of which he gave a clear synopsis in his work De la pliilosophie positive (Paris, 1845), and which he has defended and elucidated in a series of pamphlets.

In 1844 he had been appointed by his colleagues of the institute successor to Fauriel for continuing the Histoire litteraire de la France, to the '21st, 22d, and 23d volumes of which he made important contributions. In 1848 he mingled actively in politics, and held the honorary office of municipal councillor of Paris, and in 1849 published Application de la philosophie positive au gouvernement des societes, et en particulier a la crise actuelle. In 1854 he was appointed editor of the Journal des Savants. In 1863 he was a candidate for admission to the French academy, but was rejected on account of his irreligious opinions. In January, 1871, he was appointed by Gambetta professor of history and geography in the polytechnic school. In February he was elected to the national assembly as one of the representatives of the department of the Seine, and was chosen vice president. On Dec. 30 he was chosen a member of the academy in place of M. Villemain, in consequence of which Bishop Dupanloup, who had strenuously opposed his election, resigned. In the assembly M. Littre generally acted with the left.

In 18G3 he commenced the publication of his Dictionnaire de la langue fran-caise, and finished it in 1873 (4 vols. 4to). Its composition occupied a large portion of his time for nearly 30 years, and it is generally regarded as superior to any similar work in the French language. Among his other works are a translation of Pliny's "Natural History," which appeared in Nisard's Collection des clas-siques latins (1848); Conservation, revolution et positivisme (1852); Sur la mort de M. Auguste Comte (1857); Paroles de philosophie positive (1859); Medecine et medecins (1872); and La science sous le point de vue philosophique (1873).