Monogram ((Jr. . single, and letter), a character or cipher formed by the combination of two or more letters of the alphabet. Monograms were common in anti-qnitv, and their use was almost universal at the bejnnning of the Christian era. Many are found on Greek and Roman coins, medals, and seals, the names of cities and states being rep-resented rnonogrammatically where it was an object to save , and on the leaden bulla of Greece and Sicily. The Ohrismon or monogram of Christ, with which coins, seals, rings lamps, vases, tombs, paintings, and ecclesiastical documents were ornamented in the mid-dle, agea, is a combination of the Greek letters X and P, and represents the first two letters of The X is sometimes made to form a cross, and sometimes entirely detached from the P and used in connection with other letters, particularly A and Ω. The illustrations are all from tombs in the Roman catacombs, the first two of the 2d century. The Ohrismon was the symbol borne on the labarum of Constan-tine, and it was impressed on the coins of nearly all the succeeding emperors of the East. It is now nearly superseded in ecclesiastical ornamentation by the monogram of Jesus, a combination of the Greek letters IH2, the abbreviation of In the time of Charlemagne monograms were in general use on coins and seals, and in manuscripts. His own monogram occurs as a subscription to a document in the British museum of the date 801; as will be seen by the illustration, it takes in all the letters of his name (Karolus). The popes and many other sovereigns of the middle ages used monograms for signatures, as did also the early painters,' engravers, and printers. Many modern monograms are but imitations of mediaeval ones, but the taste for their use on seals, plate, paper, etc, has led to the production of designs which excel the best middle-age examples both in beauty and in intricacy. - See Brulliot, Dictionnaire des monogrammes (2d ed., 3 vols. 4to, Munich, 1832-'43); Binterim, Die vorziiglichsten DenJo-wurdigheiten der christlichhafholischen Mrche (7 vols., Mentz, 1825-'33); and Nagler, Die Monogrammisten, etc. (4 vols. 8vo, Munich, 1857-'63).
Monogram of Christ.