Morelos, an inland state of Mexico, bounded by the state and the federal district of Mexico, Puebla, and Guerrero; area, 1,887 sq. m.; pop. in 1868, 121,098; in 1873, according to the annual report of the ministry of public works, 147,039. This state, which was formerly included in that of Mexico, forms a part of the S. E. slope of the central table land, and has a mean elevation of about 4,500 ft. above the sea. It is very mountainous, and the volcano of Popocatepetl, one of the highest points, if not the culminating point, of North America, is on the N. E. boundary; but the highest peaks are separated by plains of remarkable fertility. Almost the whole country is of volcanic formation. The cave of Caca-huamilpa, near the village of the same name, is reported one of the most curious in the world; the entrance is formed by an arch 75 ft. high and 150 wide; in the interior are vast natural divisions or compartments called atones, where snow-white stalactites and stalagmites abound, resembling obelisks, palms, etc. Numerous streams water the plains, but the Cuernavaca and Cuautla, tributaries of the Amacusaque, are the only considerable rivers. The climate, mild in the north, is extremely hot and insalubrious in the south; malignant fevers and endemic dysentery are the prevailing maladies.
The staple productions are the sugar cane and several varieties of exquisite fruits, immense gardens being laid out in various parts of the state for their cultivation. There were 22 silver mines in operation in 1873, and gold, quicksilver, cinnabar, lead, chalk, and kaolin are produced. The principal industries are the manufacture of sugar, molasses, and rum of superior quality. The sugar manufactured in 1873 amounted to 20,-478,200 lbs., and the molasses to 3,632,211 gallons. There were in the state 184 public schools, 32 of which were for females, with an aggregate attendance of 7,271, exclusive of 36 enrolled in the state literary institute at Cuernavaca. Morelos is divided into five districts, and the chief towns are Cuernavaca, the capital, Cuautla de Morelos, Yautepec, Jo-nacatepe, and Tete-Cola.