Guerrero ,.I. A state of Mexico, bounded N. by the states of Michoacan, Mexico, and Pue-bla, E. by Oajaca, S. by the Pacific, and W. by Michoacan; area, 24,226 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 241,860, mostly Indians. This state, formed in 1849 of three districts from Mexico, two from Puebla, and one from Michoacan, is one of the most picturesque in the republic. It has a very irregular surface, being traversed from E. to W. by the Cordillera of the Sierra Madre, which throws off numerous spurs, many extending almost to the coast, especially in the western half, where also the greatest altitude is attained, and some trending N. until they are lost in Michoacan, or confounded with the gradual descending slope of the Mexican plateau. There are few valleys, and these of inconsiderable extent. The chief river is the Rio de las Balsas, which rises in Tlascala, enters the state near the N. E. corner, and flows first W. and then S. W., and falls into the Pacific by two mouths, half way between Acapulco and Manzanillo, forming the whole dividing line with the state of Michoacan. It is not navigable except by small craft.
Silver is the most important mineral, but of the numerous mines formerly in operation, only 13 are now worked, partly owing to the inferior quality of the metal in the others, and partly to the want of capital. Attention has within a few years been called to important gold mines at San Jose and Piedras Blancas. Cinnabar is abundant elsewhere, as are likewise lead, sulphur, saltpetre, and copperas; and anthracite is found in Chilpan-cingo. The climate varies from cold to extremely hot, according to elevation. Intermittent and other fevers prevail in most localities; goitre along the banks of the Balsas, and in the vicinity of the capital a species of leprosy. The soil is very fertile, and vegetation, particularly arboreal, is rich and varied, and there are extensive virgin forests, presenting excellent timber and many species of precious woods. Maize and beans are the chief agricultural productions, the former yielding three large crops annually; cotton, the sugar cane, coffee, cacao, yuca, and tobacco are also cultivated; and cochineal and indigo are extensively produced. Agriculture is, however, little attended to save in the central portions of the state.
The chief articles of export are cochineal, indigo, cacao, wool, and hides; the imports consist of cotton and silk fabrics, spices, and hardware. The foreign trade, once very important, is carried on through the port of Acapulco. Manufactures are limited to coarse cotton and woollen stuffs, rude agricultural implements, and household utensils. Many of the inhabitants are miners; and on the coast numbers are engaged in pearl fishing. II. A city, capital of the state, formerly called Tixtla or Tixtlan, in a narrow gorge between two mountains in the Sierra Madre, 152 m. S. by W. of Mexico; pop. in 1869, 6,501. Raised to the rank of a city upon the formation of the state in 1849, this place is as yet of little importance in any respect. The chief occupations of the people are coarse manufactures, mining, and agriculture. Notwithstanding its elevation, 5,000 ft. above the sea, its climate is hot; intermittent fevers and goitre are common, and a species of leprosy called pinto prevails to an alarming extent among the lower classes.