Moxos, Or Mojos, a nation of Indians in South America, occupying a large tract in Bolivia, between lat. 13 and 160 S., and lon. 64° and 69° W. They believed that they originated on the spot, and from their superstitious reverence for its mountains, lakes, and rivers, each band feared to emigrate. They are lighter in color and taller than the neighboring nations; are industrious, cultivating the soil, fishing and bunting. The women spin and weave. Their manners are generally mild, though they have some cruel superstitions. Missions were attempted among them at a very early period by the Dominicans, and a great mission of Jesuits was founded by Cyprian Baraza in 1676. They stopped the fends among the Moxos bands, increased the planting of maize and bananas, and taught them various arts, collecting them in 15 line missions. The Moxos Christians suffered greatly from the attacks of the Portuguese, who carri 1 off whole villages as slaves, but the (suppression of the Jesuits was the greatest blow. They left 30,000 converts, but in less than 20 years the missions were reduced to 11. They have declined still further during the revolutions of the present century.
In 1820 Velasco, the governor of the district, killed the cacique of San Pedro, and the Moxos rose in rebellion and put Velasco and his soldiers death. In 1831 the Moxos missions, with those of the kindred Baures and Muchojeones numbered only 13,620 souls in all, of whom 1,000 were in a wild state. They have a few books copied from generation to generation, and still play the old church music from notes Even in their wild state they had a kind of signs which they used in writing. A history of the Moxos was written by F. Francis X
Iraizos. Their language lacks d, f, l, is harmonious, and abounds in frequentative words. There is an Arte de la lengua Moxa eon su vocdbulario, by Father Marban (Lima, 1701).