Niemen, a river of Europe, rising in the Russian government of Minsk, and flowing W. to the town of Grodno, through the governments of Wilna and Grodno, then N. between those of Wilna and Suwalki to Kovno, and W. between Suwalki and Kovno, and thence through Prussia to the Kurisehes Haff, an arm of the Baltic. After entering Prussia it takes the name of Memel. About 8 m. below Tilsit it divides into two branches, one of which is called the Puss, and the other the Gilge. The delta which they form, called the island of Kaukehnen, is remarkable for its fertility. The chief tributaries of the Niemen are the Wilia, Shara, and Zelva. Its entire length is about 500 in., 50 of which are in Prussia. It is the main outlet for the products of the countries through which it Hows. As the snows of the regions which it drains dissolve rapidly on the approach of summer, the Niemen frequently rises 20 or 30 ft. above its ordinary level, causing great devastation. It is connected by the Oginski canal with the Dnieper and the Black sea.