Fairfield. I. A S. W. county of Connecticut, bordering on Long Island sound and the state of New York, and bounded N. E. by the Housatonic river; area, 647 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 95,276. It has excellent harbors all along the coast, and contains several important commercial ports. The Housatonic is navigable by steamboats, and supplies valuable water power. The surface of the county is considerably diversified, and the soil is good. It is traversed by numerous railroads connecting with New York, New Haven, Albany, etc. The chief productions in 1870 were 13,312 bushels of wheat, 46,457 of rye, 285,683 of Indian corn, 172,482 of oats, 515,128 of potatoes, 78,-950 tons of hay, 880,261 lbs. of butter, and 190,047 of tobacco. There were 5,652 horses, 14,214 milch cows, 15,263 other cattle, 6,082 sheep, and 8,200 swine. There were 754 manufacturing establishments, with an aggregate capital of $12,145,097. The most important were 2 of ammunition, 12 of boots and shoes, 7 of buttons, 24 of carriages and wagons, 32 of clothing, 3 of cotton goods, 3 of drugs and chemicals, 1 of small arms, 7 of furniture, 4 of gas, 14 of hardware, 6 of hat materials, 27 of hats and caps, 1 of rubber goods, 2 of patent and enamelled leather, 4 of engines and boilers, 5 of tombstones, 18 of saddlery and harness, 7 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 1 of sewing-machine fixtures, 3 of sewing machines, 1 of steel, 3 of steel springs, 1 of straw goods, 23 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 of wire work, 9 of woollen goods, 1 planing mill, 23 flour mills, 13 iron works, and 4 brass founderies.

Capitals, Bridgeport and Danbury.

II. A N. central county of South Carolina, bounded S. W. by Broad river, and N. E. by the Wateree; area, 680 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,888, of whom 14,101 were colored. It has an uneven surface and a fertile soil. It is traversed by the Charlotte, Columbia, and Augusta, the Spartanburg and Union, and the Greenfield and Columbia railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 28,005 bushels of wheat, 218,054 of Indian corn, 16,269 of oats, and 14,024 bales of cotton. There were 1,142 horses, 2,556 mules and asses, 2,891 milch cows, 3,900 other cattle, and 6,044 swine. Capital, Winnsborough.

III. A central county of Ohio, with a surface diversified by hills, plains, and rolling lands, and a soil of great fertility; area, 490 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 31,-138. It is intersected by the Ohio and Hocking canals, and the Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley and the Hocking Valley railroads; and is drained by the head stream of Hocking river, and by several small creeks. Limestone and freestone are abundant. The chief productions in 1870 were 553,924 bushels of wheat, 1,706,-| 216 of Indian corn, 24,238 of oats, 24,431 of barley, 116,231 of potatoes, 25,107 tons of hay, i 609,348 lbs. of butter, and 175,239 of wool. There were 8,728 horses, 7,956 milch cows, 13,204 other cattle, 40,138 sheep, and 35,995 swine; 4 manufactories of agricultural implements, 12 of carriages and wagons, 9 of clothing, 4 of iron castings, 12 of saddlery and harness, 4 of woollen goods, 2 planing and 9 saw mills, 8 tanneries, 8 currying establishments, 4 breweries, and 13 flour mills. Capital, Lancaster.

Fairfield, a town, port of entry, and formerly capital of Fairfield co., Connecticut, on Long Island sound, and on the New York and ! New Haven railroad, 20 m. W. S. W. of New Haven; pop. in 1870, 5,645. The village is i half a mile from the sound, principally on one broad street, and in the vicinity is a spacious hotel for summer visitors. The village of Greenfield Hill, in which Dr. Timothy Dwight resided, is in this town. About 1 1/2 m. E. of Fairfield village is Black Rock, one of the finest harbors in Connecticut, accessible for large vessels at all times of the tide. About 2 m. W. of Fairfield, at the mouth of Mile river, is the village of Southport, the principal business centre of the town. The value of the foreign commerce for the year ending June 30, 1873, was $29,410. There were registered, enrolled, and licensed 184 vessels of 11,507 tons, of which 175 of 8,918 tons were sailing vessels, 7 steamers, and 2 barges; built during the year, 19 vessels of 210 tons. The town contains 2 carriage factories, a harness factory, a national bank, a savings institution, an insurance agency, 16 public schools, and 7 churches.

Fairfield was settled in 1639, and incorporated in 1616. In 1779 it was burned by the British under Gov. Tryon. Since the census of 1870 a portion containing about 1,000 inhabitants has been annexed to Bridgeport.