Ferdinand III., emperor of Germany and king of Hungary and Bohemia, son of the preceding, born at Gratz in Styria, July 20, 1608, died at Vienna, April 2, 1657. He succeeded his father in 1637. From him he also received the inheritance of the thirty years' war, which soon took the aspect of a political rather than a religious conflict, Spain taking part with Ferdinand and France with the allied Protestants. The war was closed, as far as Germany was concerned, by the treaty of Westphalia, Oct. 24, 1648, although hostilities were still carried on between France and Spain. By this treaty Ferdinand gave up most of Alsace to France and a part of Pomerania to Sweden, recognized the independence of the Swiss confederation, restored to the son of the elector palatine Frederick V. a portion of his father's possessions, and acknowledged the rights of his Protestant subjects. He was succeeded by his second son, Leopold I.; the elder, crowned in 1653 king of the Romans as Ferdinand IV., having died in 1654.