Fowler. I. Orson Squire, an American phrenologist, born in Cohocton, Steuben co., N. Y., Oct. 11, 1809. He graduated at Amherst college in 1834, and immediately began to lecture on phrenology. In 1835 he and his brother Lorenzo opened an office in New York. In 1836 the two wrote and published Phrenology Proved, Illustrated, and Applied." The Self-Instructor in Phrenology and Physiology (1849) is also their joint production. In October, 1838, he issued in Philadelphia the first number of the "American Phrenological Journal," which was published in that city till 1842, when it was removed to New York, and continued by the firm of O. S. and L. N. Fowler, which became Fowlers and Wells in 1844, and, by the retirement of the Fowlers, S. R. Wells in 1863. Meantime Mr. Fowler has pursued, as editor, lecturer, and author, a career of unusual activity, lecturing in almost every part of the United States and Canada. The entire years 1872 and 1873 were devoted to lecturing in California and on the Pacific coast.

In 1863 he removed to Boston, where he now resides (1874). Among the many volumes on phrenology and kindred subjects which ho has published, may be mentioned Memory and Intellectual Improvement applied to Self-Education" (1841); "Physiology, Animal and Mental, applied to Health of Body and Power of Mind (1842);Matrimony, or Phrenology applied to the Selection of Companions" (1842);Self-Culture and Perfection of Character (1843); Hereditary Descent, its Laws and Facts applied to Human Improvement" (1843);Love and Parentage applied to the Improvement of Offspring " (1844); A Home for All, or the Gravel Wall and Octagon Mode of Building (1849); and Sexual Science" (8vo, Philadelphia, 1870).

II. Lorenzo Niles, brother of the preceding, born in Cohocton, June 23, 1811. His early history is almost identical with that of his brother, whom he accompanied on his lecturing tours. He has also lectured alone in all the considerable towns of the United States and the British American provinces. In 1863 he went to London, where he now resides (1874), and during 10 years past has lectured in all parts of Great Britain. Several of his lectures have been published in London, but not reprinted in the United States. In addition to the works written in connection with his brother, he is the author of the Synopsis of Phrenology and Physiology" (1844), and "Marriage, its History and Philosophy, with Directions for Happy Marriages" (1840). As a member of the firm of Fowlers and Wells he was engaged in publishing "Life Illustrated," a weekly journal, and the monthly periodicals, the American Phrenological Journal" and the "Water-Cure Journal," which has been superseded by the Science of Health." III. Lydia Folger, wife of the preceding, born in Nantucket, Mass., in 1823, is a graduate of the Syracuse medical college, and has practised medicine.

She also has lectured frequently on physiology and the diseases of women and children, and is the author of Familiar Lessons on Phrenology and Physiology" (1847), and "Familiar Lessons on Astronomy (1848).