Frank. I. Johann Peter, a German physician, born at Rothalben, Baden, March 19, 1745, died in Vienna, April 24, 1821. He first studied theology, then medicine, taking his degree at Heidelberg in 1766, and after practising at Bruchsal and elsewhere, became physician to the prince-bishop of Spire. Acquiring prominence as a lecturer and in the training of mid-wives, he was appointed professor of physiology and medical police at Gottingen in 1784; but on account of his health he went to Italy the next year, succeeded Tissot in the chair of clinics at Pavia, was appointed sanitary inspector general of Lombardy, and introduced reforms in medical instruction and practice. The rank of councillor was conferred on him by the king of England, and later by the emperor of Austria, who employed him in 1795 for the regulation of the sanitary service of the army and as director general of the principal hospital of Vienna. In 1804 he went to Wilna as professor of clinics, was afterward first medical adviser of the czar and professor at the medical and surgical academy of St. Petersburg, and returned to Vienna in 1808. Napoleon consulted him in respect to Marshal Lannes, and offered him a brilliant post in France; but he remained in Germany. His advice was sought in 1814 for Maria Louisa. Among his principal works are: System einer vollstandigen medicinischen Polizei (9 vols., including supplement, 1784-182T), and the unfinished Epitome de Curandis Hominum Morbis (6 parts, 1792-1800; 7th part, by Eyerel, 1821). His autobiography appeared in 1821, and his Opuscula Posthuma were published in 1824 by his son.

II. Joseph., a German physician, son of the preceding, born at Rastadt, Dec. 23, 1771, died at Como, Dec. 18, 1842. He was assistant of his father in Pavia and Vienna, and became in 1804 professor of pathology at Wilna, retiring in 1824 on account of a disease of the eyes. He was one of the most influential advocates of the Bru-nonian system of physic, and published Grund-riss der Pathologie nach den Gesetzen der Er-regungstheorie (Vienna, 1803). His Praxeos Medicoe Universal Prcecepta (Leipsic, 2d ed., 1826-'43) has been translated into German (9 vols., 1828-'43) and French.