Gallon, an old English measure of capacity, subdivided into 4 quarts, or 8 pints, or 32 gills. Formerly there were gallons of different capacities, one for wine, another for ale or beer, and a third for grain and dry articles. The wine gallon, called also the standard gallon, contained 231 cubic inches, the ale gallon 282 cubic inches, and the corn gallon 268.6 cubic inches. In 1824 the imperial gallon was established by the British parliament, by a statute which came into operation May 1, 1825; its capacity was 10 lbs. avoirdupois of distilled water, that weighed 252.458 grains to the cubic inch, thus making its contents 277.274 cubic inches = 4.54346 litres. The gallon of the United States is the standard or Winchester wine gallon of 231 cubic inches, and contains 8.3388822 avoirdupois lbs. or 58,372.1754 troy grains of distilled water at 39.83° F„ the barometer being at 30 inches. It is equal to 3.785207 litres. The gallon of the state of New York is of the capacity of 8 lbs. of pure water at its maximum density, or 221.184 cubic inches.
It is equal to 3.62436 litres.