Genoa (Ital. Genova; Fr. Genes; anc. Genua). I. A N. W. province of the kingdom of Italy, bordering on the provinces of Porto Maurizio, Coni, Alessandria, Pavia, Piacenza, Parma, and Massa Carrara, and the gulf of Genoa; area, 1,588 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 716,-284. The province is divided into the districts of Albenga, Chiavari, Genoa, Levante, and Savona. It forms a narrow coast land, called Riviera di Levante and Riviera di Ponente, around the gulf of Genoa, and embraces the former duchy of Genoa. The rivers, mostly springing from the Apennines, have but a short course through this province, cither emptying into the gulf or passing over to the adjacent provinces. Agriculture is unimportant, for want of level land, but the hills are covered with vines and olives, and furnish delicate fruits which are largely exported; bee-keeping is a lucrative industry of the mountaineers. There are silver, copper, lead, manganese, and coal mines; and the slate quarried near La-vagna is celebrated for its deep, lustrous black color. The Ligurian Apennines touch the Li-gurian Alps near the sources of the Bormida, where the road from Millesimo to Savona climbs three mountain ridges from 1,500 to 2,300 ft. high.
From here the Ligurian Apennines extend along the coast of the gulf in three distinct chains, separated by deep depressions: the Monte S. Giorgio, N. W. of Savona; Ermetta and Reisa, N. W. of Voltri; Penello, Orditano, and Secco, N. W. of Genoa.
North of this city are the Monte della Bochet-ta, 2,432 ft, high, and the Colli dei Giovi, 1,447 ft., with a double pass that permitted the construction of a turnpike and a railway to Alessandria. East of these the Apennines rise much higher. N. E. of Genoa is Monte An-tola, 4,151 ft. high. N. E. of Chiavari, near the boundary, is Monte Penna, 5,360 ft. high. From Genoa to Antivari, and from Lavagna to Spezia and Porto Venere, close to the coast, are mountain chains 2,000 to 3,000 ft. high. The mountainous peninsulas, Portofino and Castellana, form S. E. of Genoa the gulfs of Rapallo and Spezia, of which the latter is important as a safe and commodious port for the Italian fleet, A railway skirts the entire coast of both Rivieras, and runs parallel with the magnificent highway called the Cornice road. The line penetrates numerous promontories by more than 30 cuttings and tunnels, many of them of considerable length, in a distance of 24 m., between Genoa and Chiavari. Another railway through the province, connecting Genoa with Alessandria, has nine tunnels between Arquata and the capital.
The last tunnel before reaching Genoa, called the Galleria dei Giovi. is more than 2 m. long.
II. A city, the capital of the province, on the N. extremity of the gulf of the same name; lat. 44° 24' N., Ion. 8° 54' E.; pop. in 1872, 130,269. It is surrounded by a double wall, the smaller encircling the inner city, by ramparts and extensive outworks, detached forts, and redoubts, which make it one of the best fortified cities of Europe. Its large semicircular harbor is defended by two converging moles, the eastern or old, and the western or new. In the height of her power the city was called Geno-va la Superba (the proud); and the designation has also been used in the sense of "magnificent," on account of her beautiful situation and numerous marble palaces. On the N". E. side is the royal war harbor (darsena reale), with the marine arsenal. On the E. side is the free harbor (porto franco). This is a little walled town of itself, containing more than 300 large storehouses, and no priest, soldier, or woman is allowed to enter it except by special permission. A high Avail with arcades separates the harbor from the houses, most of them six stories high, of the via Carlo Alberto and the piazza di Scaricamento. The quay is connected by rail with the railway station.
Viewed from the harbor, the city, rising like an amphitheatre, with its churches, palaces, promenades, and gardens, with its encircling fortifications, and with the bare summits of the Apennines and the ice-covered peaks of the Alps behind, offers one of the grandest and most picturesque sights in the world. The streets are mostly narrow, irregular, and steep, paved with smooth slabs of lava, with a pathway of bricks in the centre for mules; but the vie Balbi, Nuova, and Nuovissima are broad and straight; and the more modern vie Carlo Felice, Carlo Alberto, Carretierra, and Giulia compare favorably with the chief thoroughfares of other commercial cities. The splendid architecture of the palaces, the external frescoes of the houses, the imposing religious processions, and the varied attire of the passengers, the ancient attractions of the city, are all gradually disappearing. The mezzai'o, the long white veil with which the women formerly covered head and shoulders, is now rarely seen except on Sunday when they go to mass. The palaces were once renowned for their artistic riches, but the collections are constantly diminishing, and have become very small. The most striking of the palaces is the palazzo Doria, in a conspicuous position overlooking the sea.
It was constructed in 1529 by the renowned Doria, prince of Melti; it is now almost abandoned, and retains but few traces of its former beauty. The ducal palace, restored in 1778 after designs by Simone Carlone, was formerly full of objects of art, which have been removed, some of them to the municipal palace, formerly the palazzo Doria Tursi. In the anteroom of the hall of the town council are a bust and autograph letters of Columbus. The Carlo Felice is one of the largest and finest theatres in the kingdom. That of Sant' Agostino is built entirely of wood, and can accommodate 2,000 spectators. A new cafe, with a garden and fountains, is one of the most splendid establishments of the kind in Europe. The dogana, or custom house, is the ancient edifice of the bank of St. George, and has in the hall two ranges of statues, larger than life, of the Dorias, Fies-chi, Grimaldis, and other renowned personages of the old republic. Among the numerous churches, that of Santa Maria di Cari-gnano is prominent for architectural beauty. The cathedral, dedicated to San Lorenzo, presents a strange mixture of styles. It was built in the 11th century, and has been restored many times.