This section is from the book "Bepler's Handy Manual of Knowledge And Useful Infomation", by David Bepler. Also available from Amazon: Bepler's Handy Manual of Knowledge and Useful Information.
Adit. - A level; a horizontal drift or passage from the surface into a mine.
Alluvium. - A deposit of loose gravel between the superficial covering of vegetable mold and subjacent rocks.
Amalgam. - Gold or silver combined with quicksilver.
Arastra (Mexican). - A circular combination in which ore is ground to powder by attrition of heavy stones.
Assaying. - Finding the percentage of a given metal in ore or bullion.
Assessment. - Amount levied on capital stock.
Barren Contract. - A contract vein, or a place in the contract vein, which has no mineral.
Base Bullion. - Precious metals contained in lead.
Bedrock. - The formation underlying pay-dirt.
Blende. - An ore of zinc, consisting of zinc and sulphur.
Blind Lode. - A lode having no outcrop.
Blossom Rock. - Float ore, found upon the surface or near where lodes or ledges outcrop, and from which they have become detached.
Bonanza. - Fair weather; a mine said to en bonanza when it is yielding a profit. It is a Spanish term meaning good-luck.
Breasting Ore. - Taking ore from the face, breast or end of a tunnel. Bullion. - Precious metals, gold and silver, etc., not coined.
Cage. - The elevator used for hoisting and lowering the ore cars, men and materials of a mine.
Cap Rock. - Formation overlaying the ore or vein stone.
Carbonate. - A geological formation which carries silver ore, and from 5 to 70 per cent. of lead.
Carboniferous. - Containing coal.
Chlorides. - A compound of chlorine and silver.
Chute. - An inclined channel through which ore slides.
Chopping. - The rock that appears on the surface indicating the presence of a lode.
Claim. - A piece of land 25 to 300 feet wide and 1,500 feet long, which the government sells to the man who finds mineral within its limits.
Conglomerate. - Pudding stones, composed of gravel and pebble cemented together.
Contact. - A touching, meeting or junction of two different kinds of rock, a porphyry and slate.
Contact Vein. - A vein along the contact plane of, or between, two dissimilar rock masses.
Cord of Ore. - 128 cubic feet of broken ore; about seven tons in quartz rock.
Country Rock. - Rock on either side cf a lode or ledge, usually barren; the permanent rock inclosing a vein.
Crevice. - A narrow opening, resulting from a splitor crack; a fissure.
Cribbing. - A timber or plank lining of a shaft; the confining of a wall-rock.
Cross Cut. - A level driven across the course of a vein.
Cupriferous. - Containing copper.
Debris. - Sediment from mines.
Denudation. - Rocks laid bare by running water or other agencies.
Deposit. - A body of ore distinct from a ledge.
Diggings. - Name applied to placers being worked.
Diluvium. - A deposit of superficial sand, loam, gravel, pebbles, etc.
Dip. - The slope, pitch or angle which a vein makes with the plane of the horizon.
Drift. - A horizontal passage underground.
Dump. - The pile of ore or debris taken from mines, or tailings from sluicing.
End Lines. - The lines bounding the ends of a claim.
Face. - End of level or tunnel against the ore or rock.
Fathom. - Six feet square on the vein.
Feeder. - A small vein joining a larger one.
Fissure Vein. A fissure or crack in the earth's crust filled with mineral matter.
Float. - Loose rock or isolated masses of ore, or ore detached from the original formation.
Flume. - A boxing or piping for carrying water.
Flux. - The flow of the ore in the furnace of the smelter.
Foot-wall. - The layer of rock immediately under the vein
Forfeiture. - A failure to comply with the laws prescribing the quantity of work.
Free Gold. - Gold easily separated from the quartz or dirt.
Galena. - Lead ore; sulphur and lead
Gangue. - The substance inclosing and accompanying the ore in a vein.
Gash Vein. - A vein wide above and narrow below.
Geode. A cavity studded around with crystals or mineral matter, a rounded stone containing such a cavity.
Grizzly. - Bars set in a flume to strain out the large stones used in hydraulic mining.
Gulch. - A ravine.
Hanging Wall. - The layer of rock or wall over a lode.
Heading. - The vein above the drift.
Headings. - In placer mining, the mass or gravel above the head of sluice.
High Grade Ore. - Ore which runs more silver than twenty ounces to the ton, with 50 or more per cent of lead.
Horse. - A mass of rock matter occurring in or between the branches of a vein.
Inch of Water. - About two and a half cubic feet per minute; the water that will run out of an opening one inch square.
Incline. - A slanting shaft.
Jumping a Claim. - Relocating a claim on which the required work has been done.
Level. - A tunnel cut on the vein from the main tunnel. A drift.
Ledge. - A vein or lode.
Little Giant. - A movable nozzle attached to hydraulic pipes.
Locate. - To establish the possessory right to a mining claim.
Lode. - A metallic vein.
Low Grade Ore. - Ore which runs below twenty ounces of silver to the ton, fifty per cent of the ton being lead.
Mill Run. - A test of quality of ore after reduction.
Outcrop. - That portion of a vein appearing at the surface.
Pan or Panning. - Usually to wash the dirt from the free gold with a pan, the pan resembles an ordinary milk-pan.
Patch. - A small placer claim.
Petering. - The ore giving out.
Pitch. - The same as a dip.
Piping. - Washing gravel in a hydraulic claim by discharging water upon it through a nozzle.
Placer.m - A gravelly place where gold is found; includes all forms of mineral deposits, excepting veins in place.
Pocket. - A rich spot in a vein or deposit; sometimes an entire claim contains but one or two pockets.
Porphyry. - A rock consisting of a compact base, usually felds-pathic, through which crystals of feldspar are disseminated.
Primary or Primitive Rocks. - Consist of the various kinds of slate, quartz, serpentine, granite and gneiss; they are the lowest group of rocks, are irregularly crystallized, and contain a few animal relics.
Prospecting. - Hunting for mineral lodes or placers.
Pulp. - Pulverized ore in the lixiviation process.
Reducing. - Separating from foreign substances; the reductioon of ores consists in extracting from them the metals they contain.
Salting a Mine. - Placing mineral or ore in barren places to swindle.
Shaft. - A vertical or inclined excavation for purpose of prospecting or working mines.
Side Lines. - The lines which bound the sides of a claim.
Slag. - Scum; dross; the excrement of a metal; vitrified cinders; waste from the smelters.
Slimes. - The finest of the crushed ore and gangue from mills.
Sluices. - Boxes or troughs through which gold-bearing gravel is washed.
Smelting. - Reducing the ores in furnaces to metals.
Soft Carbonate. - Silver-bearing mineral so soft that it can be readily taken out with a pick and shovel. It is usually sand impregnated with mineral, the mineral having been carbonated or oxydized.
Stamps. - Machines for crushing ores.
Stope. - A body or column of mineral left by running drifts about it.
Stoping. - The act of breaking down a stope and excavating it with a pick.
Strata. - A series of beds of rock.
Stull. - Platforms of timbers between levels for strengthening the mine by supporting the walls, and for storing ore and depositing wall rock and waste material upon.
Stull Timbers. - The large timbers placed across the vein or lode from one wall to another, to support the lagging upon which the ore or waste is placed.
Strike. - A find; a valuable mineral development made in an unexpected manner.
Sulphuret. - Combination of sulphur with a metallic, earthy or alkaline base.
Sump or Sumph. - A pit sunk at the bottom of a mine to collect the water. It can be the bottom of a shaft.
'Tailings. - The auriferous earth that has once been washed and deprived of the greater portion of the gold it contained.
Tunnel. A level, driven at right angles to the vein which its object is to reach.
Vein. - Aggregations of mineral matter in fissures of rocks.
Walls. - The sides next to the lode.
Wash. - The first geological formation, being composed of earth, sand, gravel, and other mineral "washed" down from the mountains during a long series of ages.
Whim. - A machine for raising ores and refuse.
Wizen. - A shaft sunk from one level to the other.