This section is from the book "Bepler's Handy Manual of Knowledge And Useful Infomation", by David Bepler. Also available from Amazon: Bepler's Handy Manual of Knowledge and Useful Information.
The executive power is vested in the President, who holds office for four years, and receives $50,000 annually.
The President and Vice-President are elected by electors chosen by the people. The number of electors from each State is equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled.
The electors vote by ballot. These votes are sent sealed to the President of the Senate, who opens them in the presence of Congress. If there are two parties who have received an equal number of votes, the House of Representatives choose by ballot one of them for President.
The various Cabinet Officers are appointed by the President.
They are six in number and receive $8,000 annually.
The legislative power is vested in Congress, of which there are two branches; the Senate, which is composed of two members from each State, who hold office for six years, at an annual salary of $5,000; and the House of Representatives, who are elected by the vote of each State, to hold office two years, and receive a salary of $5,000 annually.
As President of the Senate, the Vice-President performs his entire duty, except in case of removal or death of the President, in which event he assumes the executive powers. He is elected for the same term of Office as the President, and receives $8,000 annually.
The President of the United States is Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy; but the direct supervision of them belongs to the Secretaries of War and of the Navy.
The Judiciary of the United States consists of a Supreme Court which sits at Washington, D. C, and which is composed of a Chief Justice, who receives $10,500 annually, and eight Associate Justices who receive $10,000 annually. They are appointed by the President and hold office duriug good behavior.
The United States is divided into nine Judicial Circuits, each of which has a Circuit Judge, whose salary is $6,000 annually. There are fifty-eight District Courts from which an appeal lies to the Circuit Court.
Each State and Territory has its own local government, not unlike the general government in its essential features. The executive authority is vested in the Governor.
The revenue of the Government is chiefly derived from custom-house duties on imports, proceeds of sales of public lands, and internal revenue taxes. Since the year 1865-6 the revenue has each year largely exceeded the expenditure, and there has been gradual reduction of taxes. In conformity with several enactments of Congress, the surplus revenue is devoted to the gradual redemption of the public debt.