Staff, called ledger-lines. The teacher must illustrate this upon the slate, thus: -

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These lines, like those of the staff, are placed at equal distances from each other, and are reckoned, omitting a letter for the space between every two, in the same way. Example in the Treble clef; -

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The spaces also may be continued above and below the staff, the heads of the notes being placed in the spaces left between the Ledger-lines, thus: -

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The notes upon the Ledger-lines must now be learnt, and the pupil requested to look upon the slate, and at the note to which the teacher will point, at the same time repeating after him the names of the notes, thus : C on the first line below the staff in the Treble clef; A on the second line below the staff in the Treble clef; F on the third line below the staff in the Treble clef; the teacher observing that the Treble clef is repeated distinctly each time. The notes on the Ledger-lines above the staff must now be repeated after the teacher also, thus : A on the first line above the staff in the Treble clef; C on the second line above the staff in the Treble clef; E on the third lino above the staff in the Treble clef. Then the names of the notes in the spaces above and below the staff in the Treble clef must be learnt, the pupil still looking upon the slate, and repeating after the teacher, thus: D in the first space below the staff in the Treble clef, etc.; G In the first space above the staff in the Treble clef, etc. The notes must now be left upon the slate thus : -

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And the pupil must study them perfectly before the next lesson.

Of the Ledger-Lines in the Bass Clef. - For the fifth lesson the pupil must be thoroughly examined in all the notes of the Treble clef, both above, within, and below the staff, and each note written upon the slate by the pupil himself, commencing from F on the third line below the staff, to E on the third line above the staff, and the spaces in the same way; then he should write both linos and spaces consecutively, making the heads of the notes on the lines in the shape of an open oval, and those in the spaces a circular blot, thus : -

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Then these should be removed from the slate, and the pupil directed to write the notes at all imaginable distances, the names of which he may easily ascertain by counting the intervening lines or spaces. If the teacher finds that these are all now perfectly learnt and understood, he may proceed to teach the pupil the names of the notes in the Bass clef; but, again, it may be well to warn him that, if he commences to teach the Bass notes before those in the Treble have been thoroughly learned, it will be doubling his own labour, and injuring his pupil, in exactly the same manner as in the directions given for those in the Treble clef; not forgetting, particularly, to observe that the pupil repeats above, within, or below the staff in the Bass clef, after the name of every note.

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Then the Bass notes must be written by the teacher, and left upon the slate thus. -

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And the pupil must commit them to memory before the next lesson.

The Notes and their Names in both Bass and Treble Clef. - The teacher will now examine the pupil in the Bass notes taught in the preceding lesson; after which, the pupil must write each note upon the slate, thus : -

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And if, after this, any note called for by the teacher above, within, or below the stair in either clefs can be immediately given by the pupil, with its name, etc., upon the slate, he may next be taught the value of the notes. Of the Six Different Sorts Of Notes. - There are six different kinds of notes used in music, which are expressed by adding additional marks to the open oval and the circular blot. They are called the Semi-breve, Minim, Crotchet, Quaver, Semiquaver, and Demisemiquaver, and are made thus (the teacher must now write these six different kinds of notes upon the slate); -

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The pupil must now repeat after the teacher the following description of these notes, at the same time pointing to them upon the slate thus : - The semibreve is an open oval; the minim is an open oval with a stem; the crotchet is a circular blot with a stem ; the quaver is a circular blot with a stem and a dash; the semiquaver is a circular blot with a stem and two dashes ; the demisemiquaver is a circular blot with a stem and three dashes. These ought now to be written several times by the pupil himself upon the slate, and he may afterwards be told that these notes are of various lengths, and also that the semibreve is the longest note used in music, and the demisemiquaver the shortest; these he should make at once upon the slate, and will find no difficulty in remembering.

The teacher must now show that every one of these notes is equal to two of the next in value, thus -

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When several notes below the crotchet in value follow in succession, it is not necessary to put separate dashes to their stems, but they may be united in groups and the dash continued thus -