Cochineal is an animal substance, used by dyers, for giving red colours, especially crimsons and Scarlett. Cochineal belongs to a genus of insects, called Coccus, of which there are about fifty species, extremely fertile and troublesome in hot-houses and green houses. Of these the most important species is the Coccus cacti, or cochineal coccu3 celebrated for the beauty of the colour it yields, when properly prepared. It is a native of South America. The female, or officinal cochineal insect, in its full grown or torpid state, swells or grows to such a size, in proportion to that of its first or creeping state, that the legs, etc. are so small as hardly to be discovered ; so that on a general view it bears as great a resemblance to a seed or berry, as to an animal. When the female cochineal insect is arrived at its full size, it fixes to the surface of the leaf, and envelopes itself in a white cottony matter, which it is supposed to spin or draw through its proboscis, in a continued double filament. The male is a small and rather tender fly, about the size of a flea, the wings large in proportion to its body, which is of a red colour, with two long filaments proceeding from the tail. It is an active, lively insect, and is dispersed in small numbers among the females, in proportion of one male to 150 females. When the female has discharged all its eggs, it becames a mere husk and dies; so that great care is taken to kill the insects before that time to prevent the young from escaping, and thus disappointing the proprietor of their beautiful colour. The insects, when picked or brushed off the plants, are killed by the fumes of heated vinegar, or by smoke, and then dried, in which state they are imported into Europe. It is said that the Spanish government has been annually more enriched by the profit of the cochineal trade, than by the produce of all its gold mines. Cochineal is extensively used by dyers, and it yields the fine colour so much esteemed in painting, known by the name of carmine. When properly mixed with hair powder, it is what ladies use as rouge.