Kermes. A kind of husk, or excrescence, resembling a berry, growing on an evergreen of the oak kind, Quercus Coccifera, of considerable use both in physic and dyeing. That which is sometimes called by the French Vermillion, or grain de gall, or vermeil, is a kind of nest of an insect, about the size of a juniper-berry, round, smooth, and glossy; of a beautiful red colour, and full of a juice of the same dye, found sticking to the bark, on the stem and branches of a sort of scarlet oak. growing in Spain, Languedoc, and other hot countries. The kermes-berry is of a vinous smell, a hitter though agreeable taste, and is pulp, or juice, full of numerous minute ova of animalcules, 1 he origin of the kermes is supposed to be owing to a little maggot, which, pricking the cocci/era to deposit its eggs, raises a little tumour or blister, which fills with juice, and as it ripens becomes red. Hence, when kermes is dried, there comes out of it an infinite number of little insects and flies, so small that they are scarcely sensible, insomuch that the whole substance seems converted into them. To prevent this inconvenience it is usual to steep the kermes in vinegar before it is dry. The juice or pulp is extracted from the kermes by pounding it in a mortar, and straining it through a neve. Of this a syrup is made by adding a sufficient quantity of sugar. The kermes-grain has been considered as an astringent and tonic, etc. There is a celebrated confection called Al-kermes. It is, however, of greater use in dyeing scarlet. According to M. Marfigli's experiments made at Montpelier, the kermes berry has the effect of galls, when mixed with vitriol making ink, and mixed with lime water, it makes a crimson.