Logwood, Campeachy Or Indian Wood. This tree grows plentifully, and to a considerable size in Jamaica, Campeachy, etc. The wood is at first red, but alter it has been felled some time it becomes black. It is very heavy, and, in burning, gives a clear lasting flame. Logwood is principally used in dyeing, particularly black and violet. It is called also Jamaica Wood. It has a sweet astringent taste, and is administered as medicine in cases of diarrhoea and dysentery. It is much used in Portugal to make port wine, a decoction of logwood with a little Brazil rum, and an extract of rhattanny root, which is brought from S. America, being frequently sent to this country as genuine wine.
Brazil Wood. The Coesalpina Bra-siliensis of Linnaeus; an American wood, of a red colour, and very heavy. It is denominated variously according to the places from which it is brought: thus we have Brazil of Pernambuco, Japan, and Lamon. Brazilletto is the same with Brazil Wood; this tree commonly grows in dry barren places, and in the middle of rocks ; it is very thick and large; usually knotted and crooked ; its flowers, which are of a beautiful red, exhale a very agreeable smell, which, is said to strengthen the brain. This wood grows naturally in the warmest parts of America, whence it is imported for the dyers, who make considerable use of it. Though the tree be naturally very thick, yet the demand has been so great, that none of the large trees are left in any of the British plantations. The branches are slender, and full of small prickles. The colour produced from this wood is greatly improved by a solution of tin in aqua regia. It is said that the bark of the tree is so thick, that of a trunk which was as big as a man's body, when the bark is removed, is scarcely left equal to that of his leg. None of the kinds have any pith, except that of Japan. That or Pernambuco is esteemed the best. It is much used in turned works, and takes a good polish : but it is chiefly valuable for the beautiful orange and red colours in various shades, which it furnishes. It is however a fugitive colour, yet a good and permanent Turkey red can be dyed with Brazil wood and verdigris; the latter being a mordant or digestive. Sappan is another species of Brazil wood, used for the like purposes and found in the East Indies.
Cedar Of Lebanon. The cedar of Lebanon is not found as a native in any other part of the world, so far as has come to knowledge. This tree is of great beauty, and bears the openest exposure so well, that it is surprising it is not more cultivated in England. Cedars-thrive best in a poor soil, and are of quick growth, as it appears by those fine ones in the physic gardens at Chelsea, which were planted in 1683, and were not then above three feet high, and in 1702 measured near twelve feet in the girth, at two feet above ground. Cedar wood is reputed almost incorruptible, a prerogative it owes chiefly to its bitter taste, which the worms cannot endure. The ancients for this reason made use of cedar tables to write on. Solomon's- temple and palace were both of this wood. Historians tell us that some of this timber was found in the temple of Apollo, at Utica, 2,000 years old. The cedar is included by Linnaeus in the genus Pinus or firs. The red cedar brought from Barbadoes and Jamaica is a spurious sort, of so porous a nature, that the wine will leak through it. It is a species of juniper. Cortes is said to have erected a palace at Mexico, in which were seven thousand beams of cedar, most of them 120 feet long, and 12 feet in circumference, as we are informed by Herrera.