Pepper. We have three kinds of pepper - the white, the black, and the long. Black pepper (piper nigrum) is the fruit of a shrub of the creeping kind, growing in Sumatra, Java, Ceylon, and other Asiatic countries. The berries are produced in clusters, and change as they ripen from green to red, and afterwards to black. White pepper differs from the black only in being stripped of its corticle, or covering. To strip them, the black berries are steeped in salt water, and after they have been exposed to the sun for several days, the chaff is rubbed off with the hands. In this operation the pepper loses much of its original warmth. The long pepper is a fruit of a different species, also from the East Indies, and consists of numerous grains attached to a common footstalk. Cayenne pepper is derived from an entirely different class of plants, called Capsicum.